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3 levels of crisis theory
basic crisis intervention, expanded crisis theory, and applied crisis theory
Lindemann's normal grief behaviors
1. preoccupation with the lost one
2. identification with the lost one
3. expressions of guilt and hostility
4. some disorganization in daily routine
5. some evidence of somatic complaints
basic crisis intervention theory
crisis is a state resulting from impediments to life goals that cannot be overcome through customary behaviors
Basic Crisis Equilibrium/Disequilibrium Paradigm stages
1. disturbed equilibrium
2. brief therapy or grief work
3. client's working through the problem or grief
4. restoration of equilibrium
Basic Crisis intevention goal
eliminating the affective, behavioral, and cognitive distortions that precipitated the psychological trauma in the first place
basic crisis theory
focuses on helping people in crisis recognize and correct temporary affective, behavioral, and cognitive distortions brought on by traumatic events
expanded crisis theory
draws from psychoanalytic theory and from general systems, ecosystems, adaptational, interpersonal, chaos, and developmental theory.
based on the view that the disequilibrium that accompanies a person's crisis can be understood through gaining access to the individual's unconscious thoughts and past emotional experiences
based in the interrelationships and interdependence among people and between people and events
broadens out the base of the system and looks at crisis in relationship to the environmental context within which it occurs
depicts a person's crisis as being sustained through maladaptive behaviors, negative thoughts, and destructive defense mechanisms
people cannot sustain a personal state of crisis for very long if they believe in themselves and in others and have confidence that they can become self-actualized and overcome the crisis
theory of evolution when applied to human functioning such as crisis intervention. an open-ended, ever-changing, "self organizing" system whereby a new system may emerge out of the crisis
believe that movement through various developmental life stages is critical for growth
crisis in developmental theory
when an external, environmental, or situational crisis feeds into preexisting developmental crises, intrapersonal and interpersonal problems may reach the breaking point
Applied Crisis Theory
encompasses three domains
1. normal developmental crises
2. situational crises
3. existential crises
4. ecosystemic crises
events in the normal flow of human growth and evolution whereby a dramatic change or shift occurs that produces abnormal responses
emerges with the occurrence of uncommon and extraordinary events that an individual has no way of forecasting or controlling
includes the inner conflicts and anxieties that accompany important human issues of purpose, responsibility, independence, freedom, and commitment
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