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26 terms

Prin. of Econ

Microeconomics: Interdependence and gains from trade and the market (supply and demand)
STUDY
PLAY
Production Possibilities Frontier
a graph that shows the various mixes of output that an economy can produce; illustrates that people face trade-offs
Absolute Advantage
the ability to produce a good using fewer inputs than another producer
Comparative Advantage
the ability to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another producer
Opportunity Cost
whatever must be given up to obtain some item
Imports
goods produced abroad and sold domestically
Exports
goods produced domestically and sold abroad
Market
a group of buyers and sellers of a particular good or service
Competitive Market
a market in which there are many buyers and many sellers so that each has a negligible impact on the market price
Quantity Demanded
the amount of a good that buyers are willing and able to purchase
Law of Demand
the claim that, other things equal, the quantity demanded of a good falls when the price of the good rises
Demand Schedule
a table that shows the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity demanded
Demand Curve
a graph of the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity demanded
Normal Good
a good for which, other things equal, an increase in income leads to an increase in demand
Inferior Good
a good for which, other things equal, an increase in income leads to a decrease in demand
Substitutes
two goods for which an increase in the prices of one leads to an increase in the demand for the other
Complements
two goods for which an increase in the price of one leads to a decrease in the demand for the other
Quantity Supplied
the amount of a good that sellers are willing and able to sell
Law of Supply
the claim that, other things equal, the quantity supplied of a good rises when the price of the good rises
Supply Schedule
a table that shows the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity supplied
Supply Curve
a graph of the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity supplied
Equilibrium
a situation in which the market price has reached the level at which quantity supplied equals quantity demanded
Equilibrium Price
the price that balances quantity supplied and quantity demanded
Equilibrium Quantity
the quantity supplied and the quantity demanded at the equilibrium price
Surplus
a situation in which quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded
Shortage
a situation in which quantity demanded is greater than quantity supplied
Law of Supply and Demand
the claim that the price of any good adjusts to bring the quantity supplied and the quantity demanded for that good into balance