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5 crisis intervention models

equilibrium model, cognitive model, psychological transition model, developmental-ecological model, and contextual-ecological model

equilibrium model

people in crisis are in a state of psychological or emotional disequilibrium in which their usual coping mechanisms and problem-solving methods fail to meet their needs

goal of equilibrium model

help people recover a state of precrisis equilibrium

cognitive model

based on the premise that crises are rooted in faulty thinking about the events or situations that surround the crisis--not in the events themselves or the facts about the events or situations

goal of cognitive model

help people become aware of and to change their views about the crisis events or situations

basic tenet of cognitive model

people can gain control of crises in their lives by changing their thinking, especially by recognizing and disputing the irrational and self-defeating parts of their cognitions, and by retaining and focusing on the rational and self-enhancing elements of their thinking

use of cognitive model

use is most appropriate after the client has been stabilized and returned to an approximate state of precrisis equilibrium

psychosocial transition model

assumes that people are products of their genes plus the learning they have absorbed from their particular social environments

goal of psychosocial transition model

both to collaborate with clients in assessing the internal and external difficulties contributing to the crisis and to help them choose workable alternatives to their current behaviors, attitudes, and use of environmental resources

use of psychosocial model

use is most appropriate after the client has been stabilized. if the client does not change social situations or does not come to terms with and understands the dynamics of the social systems and how they affect adaptation to the crisis, results may be short-lived

developmental-ecological model

integrates developmental stages and issues with the environment within which the individual operates. crisis worker needs to assess both the individual and the environment as well as the interrelationship between the two and then factor in the developmental stage within which the person in operating

contextual-ecological model

focuses on the contextual elements of the crisis.

first premise of contextual-ecological model

contextual elements are seen in layers, which are dependent on two elements: proximity to the crisis by physical distance and reactions that are moderated by perception and the meaning attributed to the event

second premise of contextual-ecological model

reciprocal impact occurs between the individual and systems affected by the event

third premise of contextual-ecological model

time directly influences the impact of a crisis

eclectic crisis intervention theory

intentionally and systematically selecting and integrating valid concepts and strategies from all available approaches to helping clients

major tasks of eclectic intervention theory

1. identify valid elements in all systems and to integrate them into an internally consistent whole that does justice to the behavioral data to be explained
2. to consider all pertinent theories, methods, and standards for evaluating and manipulating clinical data according to the most advanced knowledge of time and place
3. to identify with no specific theory, keep an open mind, and continuously experiment with those formulations and strategies that produce successful results

2 themes of eclectic theory

1. all people and all crises are unique and distinctive
2. all people and all crises are similar

Characteristics of effective crisis workers

1. life experience-has experienced life, has learned and grown from those experiences, and supports those experiences in his work by thorough training, knowledge, and supervision
2. poise-counselor can remain calm, poised, and in control
3. creativity and flexibility
4. energy and resiliency-functioning in the unknown areas that are characteristic of crisis intervention requires energy, organization, and systematic action
5. quick mental reflexes-time to reflect and mull over problems is a rare commodity in crisis intervention

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