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5 crisis intervention models
equilibrium model, cognitive model, psychological transition model, developmental-ecological model, and contextual-ecological model
people in crisis are in a state of psychological or emotional disequilibrium in which their usual coping mechanisms and problem-solving methods fail to meet their needs
based on the premise that crises are rooted in faulty thinking about the events or situations that surround the crisis--not in the events themselves or the facts about the events or situations
goal of cognitive model
help people become aware of and to change their views about the crisis events or situations
basic tenet of cognitive model
people can gain control of crises in their lives by changing their thinking, especially by recognizing and disputing the irrational and self-defeating parts of their cognitions, and by retaining and focusing on the rational and self-enhancing elements of their thinking
use of cognitive model
use is most appropriate after the client has been stabilized and returned to an approximate state of precrisis equilibrium
psychosocial transition model
assumes that people are products of their genes plus the learning they have absorbed from their particular social environments
goal of psychosocial transition model
both to collaborate with clients in assessing the internal and external difficulties contributing to the crisis and to help them choose workable alternatives to their current behaviors, attitudes, and use of environmental resources
use of psychosocial model
use is most appropriate after the client has been stabilized. if the client does not change social situations or does not come to terms with and understands the dynamics of the social systems and how they affect adaptation to the crisis, results may be short-lived
integrates developmental stages and issues with the environment within which the individual operates. crisis worker needs to assess both the individual and the environment as well as the interrelationship between the two and then factor in the developmental stage within which the person in operating
first premise of contextual-ecological model
contextual elements are seen in layers, which are dependent on two elements: proximity to the crisis by physical distance and reactions that are moderated by perception and the meaning attributed to the event
second premise of contextual-ecological model
reciprocal impact occurs between the individual and systems affected by the event
eclectic crisis intervention theory
intentionally and systematically selecting and integrating valid concepts and strategies from all available approaches to helping clients
major tasks of eclectic intervention theory
1. identify valid elements in all systems and to integrate them into an internally consistent whole that does justice to the behavioral data to be explained
2. to consider all pertinent theories, methods, and standards for evaluating and manipulating clinical data according to the most advanced knowledge of time and place
3. to identify with no specific theory, keep an open mind, and continuously experiment with those formulations and strategies that produce successful results
2 themes of eclectic theory
1. all people and all crises are unique and distinctive
2. all people and all crises are similar
Characteristics of effective crisis workers
1. life experience-has experienced life, has learned and grown from those experiences, and supports those experiences in his work by thorough training, knowledge, and supervision
2. poise-counselor can remain calm, poised, and in control
3. creativity and flexibility
4. energy and resiliency-functioning in the unknown areas that are characteristic of crisis intervention requires energy, organization, and systematic action
5. quick mental reflexes-time to reflect and mull over problems is a rare commodity in crisis intervention
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