Chapter 4 - THE FIRST TWO YEARS Psychosocial Development - Key Terms
social smile (p. 124)
A smile evoked by a human face, normally first evident in infants about 6 weeks after birth.
stranger wariness (p. 125)
An infant's expression of concern—a quiet stare when clinging to a familiar person, or a look of sadness—when a stranger appears.
separation anxiety (p. 125)
An infant's distress when a familiar caregiver leaves, most obvious between 9 and 14 months.
self-awareness (p. 126)
A person's realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body, mind, and actions are separate from those of other people.
trust versus mistrust (p. 131)
Erikson's first crisis of psychosocial development. Infants learn basic trust if the work is a secure place where their basic needs (for food, comfort, attention, and so on) are met.
autonomy versus shame and doubt (p. 131)
Erikson's second crisis of psychosocial development. Toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self-rule over their actions and their bodies.
social learning (p. 132)
The acquisition of behavior patterns by observing the behavior of others.
working model (p. 133)
In cognitive theory, a set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences. For example, a person might assume that other people are trustworthy and be surprised by evidence that this working model of human behavior is erroneous.
ethnotheory (p. 133)
A theory that underlies the values and practices of a culture but is not usually apparent to the people within the culture.
temperament (p. 134)
Inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and self-regulation. Temperament is epigenetic, originating in the genes but affected by child-rearing practices.
Big Five (p. 135)
he five basic clusters of personality traits that remain quite stable throughout life: openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
proximal parenting (p. 136)
Caregiving practices that involve being physically close to the baby, with frequent holding and touching.
distal parenting (p. 136)
Caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby, providing toys, food, and face-to-face communication with minimal holding and touching.
goodness of fit (p. 139)
A similarity of temperament and values that produces a smooth interaction between an individual and his or her social context, including family, school, and community.
synchrony (p. 140)
A coordinated, rapid and smooth exchange or responses between a caregiver and an infant.
still-face technique (p. 141)
An experimental practice in which an adult keeps his or her face unmoving and expressionless in face-to-face interaction with an infant.
attachment (p. 141)
According to Ainsworth, "an affectional tie" that an infant forms with a caregiver—a tie that binds them together in space and endures over time.
secure attachment (p. 142)
A relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver.
insecure-avoidant attachment (p. 143)
A pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver's presence, departure, or return.
insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment (p. 143)
A pattern of attachment in which an infant's anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as when the infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks contact on reunion.
disorganized attachment (p. 143)
A type of attachment that is marked by an infant's inconsistent reactions to the caregiver's departure and return.
Strange Situation (p. 143)
A laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by evoking infants' reactions to the stress of various adults' comings and goings in an unfamiliar playroom.
social referencing (p. 145)
Seeking information about how to react to an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event by observing someone else's expressions and reactions. That other person becomes a social reference.
family day care (p. 147)
Child care that includes several children of various ages and usually occurs in the home of a woman who is paid to provide it.
center day care (p. 147)
Child care that occurs in a place especially designed for the purpose, where several paid adults care for many children. Usually the children are grouped by age, the day-care center is licensed, and providers are trained and certified in child development.