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Genetics Midterm 3
Test over Ch. 11-15
Terms in this set (56)
genetic material criteria
chromosomes composed of:
Fred Griffith Transforming Principle determined if genetic material was in ___ or _____.
Fred Griffith studied pneumococci, 2 strains:
Rough R, Smooth S
Difference between Rough R & Smooth S:
No polysaccharide capsule vs polysaccharide capsule;
Not protected from immune sys. vs protected from immune sys.
Dead type _____ transformed live type _____ into type _____.
Smooth S, Rough R, Smooth S
Avery, Macleod and McCarty determined transforming principle was in _____.
Hershey and Chase experiment studied the _____ organism.
TMV (T___ M___ V___) is a plant virus whose genome is composed of _____.
Tobacco Mosaic Virus, RNA
Nucleic Acid Structure
Nucleic Acids -> Single Strand -> DNA double helix -> Chromosomes
3 components of a nucleotide:
Chargaff determined _____ of nitrogenous bases and that _____ was the same no matter the organism.
A with T, G with C
Watson and Crick determined A binds with T with #? of bonds and C binds with G with #? of bonds.
RNA is ___ - ____ nucleotides long.
Different RNA secondary structures include:
Stem loop (Hair pin)
DNA sequences are necessary for:
Synthesis of RNA and cellular proteins
Replication of chromosomes
Proper segregation of chromosomes
Compaction of chromosomes
Bacterial Chromosomal DNA molecule is:
Circular, few million nucleotides in length
Structural gene sequences are responsible for _____ _____ .
Nontranscribed DNA segments are _____ regions.
Intergenic regions help in _____, _____, _____, and _____.
Folding, replication, regulation, recombination
Bacterial chromosomes are found in the _____.
The nucleoid is surrounded by a membrane. True or false?
False, DNA is in direct contact with the cytoplasm
Bacterial DNA must be compacted ______-fold in order to _____.
Binding proteins, DNA supercoiling
Stable, supercoiled DNA conformations are _____ of each other.
Negative supercoiling helps in 2 main ways:
the _____ of a chromosome
& _____ of DNA which enhances _____ and _____.
separation, replication, transcription
DNA gyrase AKA
DNA topoisomerase II
What type of coiling does DNA gyrase cause?
Negative, from ATP
DNA topoisomerase I causes _____ coiling.
The blocking of _____ can cure/alleviate bacterial diseases.
DNA topoisomerase can be inhibited with _____ or _____.
Chromosomal replication and segregation requires:
Origins of replication
Variation in genome size is not related to complexity of species. True or false?
True. Size is due to repetitive DNA sequences.
Unique sequences (happen _____ times) make up #% of the genome in humans.
once or a few, 41%
Moderately repetitive (happen _____ times) and contain:
_____, _____, _____, and _____.
hundreds to thousands, rRNA, histones, origins of replication, transposable elements
Highly repetitive (happen _____ times)
thousands to millions
Eukaryotic chromosome packing level 1 ( # - nm fiber):
11 nm Nucleosome
Made of dsDNA wrapped around octamer of histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, H4)
Beads on a string
Kornberg biochem, x-ray, electron microscope studies
Digestion (by DNase 1) of linker region of chromatin should make 200 bp fragments
Eukaryotic chromosome packing level 2 ( # - nm fiber):
30 nm Solenoid structure/3d zigzag model
H1 + more salt = ?
H1 + less salt = ?
Beads on a string
Solenoid structure + Nucleosome shortens _____-fold
Euchromatin vs Heterochromatin packaging of chromosomes
Less dense vs Tightly packed
Heterochromatin forms (2):
Constitutive: permanent hetero
Facultative: switch between Eu and Hetero
Eukaryotic chromosome packing level 3 ( # - nm fiber):
300 nm Radial loop domains
Radial loop domains
Anchoring to nuclear matrix
Eukaryotic chromosome packing level 4 ( # - nm fiber):
700 nm Scaffold structure
Nuclear matrix folds
Metaphase chromosomes formed by _____ and _____.
Condensin and Cohesin (contain SMC proteins)
SMC proteins stand for:
Structural maintenance of chromosomes
3 models of DNA replication:
Conservative, Semi-conservative, Dispersive
3 stages of DNA replication:
Helicase _____ and _____ DNA. Generates _____ supercoiling.
Attached rings are _____.
Catenases are separated by _____.
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