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Biology short answers 5/25
Terms in this set (22)
Identify abiotic and biotic factors
A biotic factor is a living organism like plants or animals. An abiotic factor is a non living organism like rocks. Together they make a biome (the biosphere) that ties back to ecosystems.
How does artificial selection differ from natural selection? Give an example of each.
Artificial selection is when humans and specific traits are selected in organisms in order to reproduce offspring with those traits. Natural selection is where humans aren't involved and organisms in an environment whose traits are best suited for survival can live and their offspring will live (survival of the fittest)
Why do animals such as bony fish, turtles, birds and deer belong in the same phylum?
They all share a common characteristics - they all have a vertebrae (spine)
Identify the 4 chambers of the heart. Then use them to write a description of the path blood travels through the heart.
Right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle. Blood flows from the right atrium to the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery and to the lungs, from the lungs to the pulmonary veins into the left atrium to the left ventricle into the aorta and out to the body.
What is a codon & what is its function?
A codon is the 3 letter code for the amino acid, the 3 letter stands for nucleotides. 3 nucleotides code for a specific amino acid. It's function is to code for a specific amino acid to code for a ribosome.
Describe the idea of species having a common ancestor. Explain homologous and analogous structures.
The common ancestor is the one all people share share aka the grandpa, the common ancestor in evolution is which many species have evolved. Evidence is seen in fossils and dna analysis in modern times. Homologous is same structure same function dog people and other animals have hips ankles etc, analogous different kinds of wings in animals that allow them to fly.
In the immune system, T-cells concentration of a person infected with HIV changes over time. Describe what is causing this change.
B cells help create T cells. HIV virus attacks b cells and if there's no B cell then no more T cell will be produced and over time there will be no T cell and will drastically drop, makes them vulnerable to a lot of infections.
How many terms make up the scientific name of a species? How is that name distinguished in print from the common name of a species?
2 terms in Latin and name is distinguished, first one capitalized first one is not, second one
is a defining characteristic.
Explain the roles of photosynthesis and respiration in the carbon cycle.
The carbon cycle stores and recycles carbon. Producer organisms (plants) take in carbon in the form of CO2. The plants then use the carbon molecules from the CO2 in the process of photosynthesis to make sugars, proteins, and lipids for their growth. When the plants are eaten by consumer organisms, the consumers release the carbon in the plants by breaking down and using the organic compounds in their metabolic processes. Then carbon is released back into the ecosystem in the form of CO2.
Explain the process of translation.
1. The ribosome binds to mRNA at a specific area.
2. The ribosome starts matching tRNA anticodon sequences to the mRNA codon sequence.
3. Each time a new tRNA comes into the ribosome, the amino acid that it was carrying gets added to the elongating polypeptide chain.
4. The ribosome continues until it hits a stop sequence, then it releases the polypeptide & mRNA.
5. the polypeptide forms into its shape & starts acting as a functional protein in the cell.
What sources of evidence contributed to Charles Darwin's concept of evolution by natural selection? Include a description of natural selection in your answer.
He saw tortoises and finches. With the finches, some of the beaks were skinny and some were thick. With the tortoises, some necks were long and some were short.
Compare and contrast mutualism and commensalism.
Mutualism and commensalism are both part of symbiosis. Mutualism is the association between organisms of 2 different species in which both benefit. Commensalism is a relationship in which one species benefits from the other without harming it.
What can happen when an immune system overreacts to harmless pathogens?
You get an allergic reaction that produces histamines. For a histamine to form, the amino acid histidine undergoes decarboxylation.
Describe the stages of primary succession in a land environment. Make sure to mention the role played by grasses, lichens, trees, mosses and shrubs.
Bare rock, mosses and lichens, shrubs grasses, leaves. mosses and lichens help to break down the soil, grasses and shrubs put nutrients into the soil, trees are the apex of primary
succession that brings nutrients to soil and helps it stay in place.
Fossil evidence indicates that dolphins evolved from ancestors that walked on land. How can the concept of natural selection be use to explain how dolphins evolved?
Dolphins would go back to water for food, predation, or climate change.
Compare and contrast active and passive immunity. Include an explanation of how an individual develops each type.
One comes from your mother and one comes from being exposed to the pathogen. Active immunity is a resistance to disease through the creation of antibodies by the immune system. Passive immunity is a resistance to a disease where the resistance was gained without the immune system producing antibodies.
List and explain the steps in protein synthesis.
1. Copy of one side of DNA strand is made.
2. mRNA moves to cytoplasm then the ribosome.
3. mRNA goes through ribosome, 3 bases at a time.
4. tRNA matches up with the open DNA bases.
5. tRNA releases the amino acid at the top, which joins the chain of amino acids being produced.
Why does a river ecosystem often support little plant life at its source? Describe how the
ecosystem changes to support organisms as it flows.
There is no plantlife near the source of a river due to the quickness of the water flowing which means plants cannot take root. As the water flows, it slows down & picks up sediments. Where sediment builds up, plants are able to grow. As you go farther downstream, plants and animals grow more diverse.
If the lymphatic vessels were block, what would be the immediate effects on the human body?
Water retention and you will get sick.
How can different population sizes affect density in areas of the same size? Give an example.
Plentiful resources, equilibrium, resources limited / population stress
Explain the process of DNA replication.
biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule. This process occurs in all living organisms and is the basis for biological inheritance. DNA is made up of a double helix of two complementary strands.
What is the difference between exponential growth and logistic growth in relation to
Exponential growth starts at a certain rate then grows exponentially, logistic growth is when it starts out slow then speeds up then stays at a constant rate.
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