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130 terms

Combo set for Exam 3! :)

Finding everything I can under chapters I am studying for. http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0205003788.pdf http://blog.lib.umn.edu/clar0514/academic/crimedeviance.pdf
STUDY
PLAY
deviance
violation of a social norm
conformity
adherence to social norms
range of tolerance
a scope of behaviors considered acceptable and defined as conformity
extreme deviance
beliefs, behaviors, or physical traits that are so unacceptable that they elicit extremely strong negative reactions
crime
any act that violates a criminal law
hate crimes
criminal acts against people and their property that are motivated by racial and ethnic prejudices and other social biases.
stigma
any characteristic that sets people apart and discredits or disqualifies them from full social acceptance and participation
medical model
views deviance as analogous to illness
pornography
sexually explicit materials intended solely for sexual arousal
social pathology
a problem that potentially threatens the survival of society
strain theories
the view that deviance is a result of the tensions or strain experienced by people because of their position in the social structure
anomie
a state of social strain, normative confusion, or rapid change in norms when people's behavior is no longer restrained by conventional norms
conflict theories of deviance
views deviance as arising when groups with power attempt to impose their norms and values on less powerful groups
elite deviance
includes all aspects of white-collar crimes as well as other deviant acts perpetrated by those in power
labeling theories
view deviance and conformity primarily as labels assigned to certain people and certain acts
primary deviance
when an individual violates a norm and is viewed as deviant but rejects the deviant label and maintains a conformist conception of himself or herself
secondary deviance
the internalization of a deviant label and the assumption of a deviant role
social learning theories
contend that all behavior (including deviance) is learned through social interaction.
social control theories
contend that deviance is normal and conformity must be explained
social control
mechanisms people use to enforce prevailing social norms
deterrence theory
states that deviance will be deterred if negative social sanctions (especially punishment) are perceived to be certain, swift, and severe.
sexting
sending nude photos of oneself via cell phone or other mobile device
cyber crimes
computer-related crimes conducted over the Internet
functionalist perspective to deviance
Durkheim; Merton's Theory of Anomie (gap between socially acceptable goals [money & success] and structural means to those goals [education & employment])
conflict perspective to deviance
views deviance as arising when groups with power attempt to impose their norms and values on less powerful groups; reinforces inequality and define as deviant any behavior that threatens those in power (laws that protect property, against laws to "beg" & "hitchhike")
symbolic interactionist perspective to deviance
labeling theory -- views deviance and conformity as labels assigned to certain people and certain acts; people who are labeled as deviant and treated as deviant become deviant.
Which statement is MOST accurate in describing deviance and conformity
Deviance and conformity are relative terms based on a number of societal variables.
What type of stigma is experienced by ethnic and racial minorities, gays and lesbians, and members of the Pagans motorcycle gang?
tribal stigma
Who was the sociologist who extensively addressed the types of stigma individuals experience and noted that stigmatized individuals are often seen as being "not quite human."
Erving Goffman
Of the following variables, which is perhaps the most influential in deviance and conformity?
The cultural context in which the behavior occurs.
What was the condition identified by a 19th century Italian surgeon that attributed deviance to a package of genetic traits that distinguished violent and habitual criminals from the "normal" noncriminal population?
atavism
What does sociological research suggest as the major reason for banning gangsta rap that includes lyrics promoting suicide, racism, and murder?
The ban is motivated more by race and social class than by genuine concern for its potential effects.
What is the definitive conclusion regarding the effects of reading and viewing pornography based on the most recent sociological studies?
There is no definitive conclusion regarding the effects of reading and viewing pornography.
In a study by the American Medical Association in 1989, what media form was found to have the greatest influence on teenagers?
music
What sociological perspective is being addressed when the negative consequences of deviance are stressed, such as people being harmed, norms being threatened, and the emotional cost involved?
the structural functionalist perspective
Who was one of the first social scientists to conduct experiments that attempted to link television violence to aggressive behavior in children?
Albert Bandura
Who were the two sociologists who developed a set of five techniques of neutralization that permit "normal" individuals to engage in deviant behavior but neutralize the stigmatizing affect of their behavior?
Gresham Sykes and David Matza
What was the form of suicide Durkheim identified as occurring because of extreme social constraint that is the underlying cause of suicidal love pacts and suicide among slaves?
fatalistic suicide
What were the two main issues in the typology of adaptive behavior that Robert Merton developed in strain theory?
socially accepted goals and culturally approved means to achieve them
What mode of adaptive behavior rejects both socially accepted goals as well as the culturally approved means to achieve them?
retreatism
Who developed the Pyrrhic defeat theory and applied it as a plausible explanation for the failure of the criminal justice system in the United States?
Jeffrey Reiman
What is the general category of deviance that includes all aspects of white-collar crime as well as other deviant acts perpetuated by those in power?
elite deviance
What theory of social control states that deviance will be effectively reduced if negative social sanctions are perceived to be swift, certain, and severe?
deterrence theory
Of the following punishments, which is BEST classified as specific deterrence?
the death penalty
Which group of punishments serves as the best example of informal social control?
gossip, ridicule, ostracism
Which of the following statements best describes Emile Durkheim's view of crime and its effect on society?
Crime is a normal part of all societies and all societies institutionalize sanctions to control criminals.
When examining the "Crime Clock," which of the following crimes is MOST likely to occur in a 24 hour period?
motor vehicle theft
What is the system called that ranks nations in a hierarchy based on their access to the world's wealth, power, and prestige?
Global Stratification
In which classification of nation is world stratification most acutely felt and has the greatest effect on its people?
poorer nations in the low-income classification
In the Three World Model what qualities best describe the Second World Nations?
socialist economy, communistic
What is the central factor used by the United Nations Development Program to determine the rank of nations?
the average income of a nation's citizens
Which of the following groups of nations are all high-income nations?
Italy, Germany, New Zealand
What was the world event that swept away most of the Second World Nations?
the collapse of the Soviet Union
A large percentage of the population in Ethiopia and Afghanistan make insufficient money to afford food and other necessities of life. In view of this, which phrase best describes these people in Ethiopia and Afghanistan?
They are in absolute poverty.
What country has the largest population in the world today?
China
Which nation has the highest per capita income?
Luxembourg
What is the population of the world expected to be by the year 2100?
twelve billion
How does Modernization Theory address the issue of global stratification?
It recognizes global development as a process in which advanced industrial nations and technology help poor nations advance.
With what sociological perspective are colonialism, world systems theory, and dependency theory most aligned?
the conflict approach
Using Dependency Theory, what form of dependency perpetuates former colonial practices and is sustained by most favored nation treaties?
trade dependency
In World Systems Theory, nations such as Afghanistan and Rawanda that are at the very edge of the world economy and have very little to offer it are called
periphery nations
What was the goal of the New World Information and Communication Order?
the decolonialization of information and monitoring of negative media stereotypes
Based on the textbook, what is the world's largest corporation based on market value?
General Motors
What is the global city that has been called "the capital of Latin America."
Miami, FL
Guidelines that govern our thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors and which are fundamental to explaining deviance are called ____________.
norms
The collective term for expected behaviors, such as saying "excuse me" after bumping into someone or paying one's income tax by the 15th of April, is ___________.
prescriptive norms
Informal norms that reflect cultural traditions and guide everyday interactions, such as manners at meal time and choice of attire, are called ____________.
Folkways
Beliefs such as "we are a nation of laws, not men" and "no one is above the law" are examples of a typology of deviant behavior called ____________
the normative approach
What is true about conformity and social norms?
when people conform to social norms, we are able to anticipate what others will do in certain situations
Are deviance and crime equal?
No. Although all deviance is crime, not all crime is deviance.
The category of stigma that includes people who are discredited because they are members of a socially disapproved category or group is known as ______________.
a tribal stigma
What is the oldest theoretical explanation for deviant behavior?
dEMONology
The Italian surgeon who developed the theoretical explanation that atavism was the cause of deviance was ____________.
Cesare Lombroso
During the 1970s, the popular therapy for inmates was to refer to them as residents, define the symptoms of their criminality, determine a prognosis for their return to society, and develop a treatment plan to make it happen. Under which sociological explanation does such an approach qualify?
the medical model
What is the purpose of the "V-chip"?
It allows parents to block specific programs from television reception.
Whose studies (using the Bobo Doll) were among the first attempts to link television violence with aggressive behavior in children?
Albert Bandura
Which nineteenth century sociologist believed that deviant behavior was a social pathology that threatened society?
Herbert Spencer
What was the form of suicide Durkheim identified as occurring in "folk societies" and other closely bonded small groups?
altruistic suicide
Which sociologist developed a theory to explain deviance that addressed socially accepted goals and culturally approved means to achieve them?
Robert Merton
What mode of adaptive behavior accepts and pursues socially accepted goals but rejects culturally approved means to achieve them?
innovation
What is the general category of deviance that includes all aspects of white-collar crime as well as other deviant acts perpetuated by those in power?
elite deviance
Based on the theories of Edwin Lemert, what is it called when an individual violates a norm and is viewed as deviant but rejects the deviant label and maintains a conformist conception of himself or herself?
primary deviance
Which sociological theory used to explain deviance is best illustrated by the phrase "birds of a feather flock together"?
differential association theory
Which is NOT one of Sykes and Matza's five techniques of neutralization
appeal to the condemners
Punishments that discourage the individual from committing similar acts in the future are known as ______________.
specific deterrence
Although people fear violent crimes the most, they are far more likely to become victims of which kind of crime?
property offenses
Which of the following terms is also used to describe public order offenses?
victimless crime
Over 1,000 U.S. inmates have been executed since the death penalty was reinstated in ________.
1977
The most common sentence for nonserious offenses and petty property crimes is ____________.
probation
Conformity
Adherence to social norms Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Deviance
Violation of social norm. Behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society
anomie
state of social strain, normative confusion or rapid change in norms when people's behavior is no longer restrained by conventional norms
Crime
Any act that violates a criminal law
Cyber Crime
Computer related crimes conducted over the internet
Conflict theories of deviance
View deviance as arising when groups with power attempt to impose their norms and values on less powerful groups
Deterrence theory
States that deviance will be effectively deterred if negative social sanctions (especially punishment) are perceived to be certain, swift and severe.
Elite Deviance
Includes all aspects of white collar crime as well as other deviant acts perpetrated by those in power.
Extreme deviance
Beliefs, behaviors, or physical traits that are so unacceptable that they elicit extremely strong negative reactions.
Hate crimes
Criminal acts against people and their property that are motivated by racial and ethnic prejudices and other social biases
Labeling theories
View defiance and conformity primarily as labels assigned to certain people and certain acts.
Medical Model
Views deviance as analogous to illness
pornography
Sexually explicit materials intended solely for sexual arousal
primary deviance
When an individual violates a norm and is viewed as deviant but rejects the deviant label and maintains a conformist conception of himself or herself.
Range of Tolerance
A scope of behavior considered acceptable and defined as conformity
Stigma
Any characteristic that sets people apart and discredits or disqualifies them from full social acceptance and participation
Social learning theories
The idea that much human behavior is learned from modeling others
Social Pathology
A problem that potentially threatens the survival of society
Strain theories
The view that deviance is a result of the tensions or strain experienced by people because of their position in the social structure.
Social control theories
Contend that deviance is normal and conformity must be explained
social control
Mechanisms people use to enforce prevailing social norms
Secondary deviance
The internalization of a deviant label and the assumption of a deviant role. Social learning theories contend that all behavior (including deviance) is learned thru social interaction.
Furman v. Georgia
The Court's decision forced states and the national legislature to rethink their statutes for capital offenses to assure that the death penalty would not be administered in a capricious or discriminatory manner.
Folkways
in sociology, are norms for routine or casual interaction. This includes ideas about appropriate greetings and proper dress in different situations
Mores
fixed customs or manners; moral attitudes to refer to norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance
normative approach
Measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development.
objective approach
the assumption that truth is singular and is accessible through unbiased sensory observation; committed to uncovering cause-and-effect relationships.
Norms are what?
Prescriptive
What is prescriptive?
They tell us what we should do.
What are other norms?
They are proscriptive
What is proscriptive?
they tell us what we should not do.
Examples of proscriptive
Informally, no feet on tables, formally don't kill.
Laws
which are formal rules enacted and enforced by the state.
Folkways and mores are informal norms and laws though are ?
Formally codified laws not necessarily more important.
Normative Approach
Emphasis on norms in defining deviance and conformity illustrates how members of society evaluate behavior in reference to some preestablished standard of behavior. It also implies that there is some set of absolute norms the violation of which automatically constitutes deviance.
extreme deviance
Beliefs, behaviors, or physical traits that are so unacceptable that hey elicit extremely strong negative reactions.
What are examples of extreme deviance?
extreme tattooing and body piercing, alien kidnappings, being overly obese, believing in white supremacy, endorsing adult child sexual contact, terrorism or cannibalism
Ruth Cavan
created a behavioral continuum model that illustrates how societal members create an acceptable range of tolerance around a social norm.
Cavan's model shows over conformity and under-conformity can be viewed as what?
Deviance.
Deviance and conformity are not absolute what?
terms. They are what we apply to people and behaviors based on a wide variety of circumstances.
What is considered conformity at one point in time may be viewed as deviance during another.
Examples are folkways governing fashion and grooming norms that change over time.

Example: Place is where behavior occurs is also an important determinant of whether an act is viewed as appropriate or deviant.