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Biology Short Answer Exam Review
Terms in this set (17)
Identify biotic and abiotic factors.
Biotic factors are the living factors in the in environment such as plants and animals. Abiotic factors are the non-living things in the environment such as climate and soil. These factors make up the biosphere.
How does artificial selection differ from natural selection? Give an example of each.
Natural selection is the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring for example the finches from the two islands. Artificial selection is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together. A example of this is dogs. The difference between these two is that artificial is when humans select certain traits of an animal by breeding while natural is survival of the fittest.
Why do animals such as bony fish, turtles, birds and deer belong in the same Phylum?
Bony fish, turtles, birds and deer belong in the same phylum because they all have a vertebrae. Because they are closely related classes they belong to the same phylum and probably have the same ancestor
Identify the four chambers of the heart. Then use them to write a description the path blood
travels through the heart.
The four chambers of the heart are the right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle. Blood
flow starts with the superior vena cava bringing in all the deoxygenated blood into the right atrium which then it goes into the right ventricle then into through the pulmonary artery into the longs to get oxygen. Then the oxygenated blood goes into the left atrium down into the left ventricle and out to the body via the aorta.
Describe the idea of species having a common ancestor. Explain homologous and analogous
Through dna and fossil evidence it is shown that many modern animals evolved from common ancestors or a single organisms that changed over time. Homologous structures are those that have the same function as well as the same structure; analogous structure have the same function but different structures. A example of a homologous structure is a dog leg and a human leg. A example of a analogous structure is a bat wing and a dragonfly wing.
In the immune system, T-cells concentration of a person infected with HIV changes over time. Describe what is causing this change.
When a person is infected by HIV the virus attacks our B cells (which produce our T cells) which will cause the T cells to Significantly decrease in numbers which would cause you to have no immunity to infections
Be able to look up the name of an amino acid when the mRNA codon is given (you will have the round chart to look for it).
How many terms make up the scientific name of a species? How is that name distinguished in print from the common name of a species?
It takes two terms to make up the scientific which is Genus species name and it is distinguished with italics ,and is written in latin.
Explain the roles of photosynthesis and respiration in the carbon cycle.
Explain the process of translation. You may draw pictures to help illustrate your answer. Make sure to label all parts of the picture.
What sources of evidence contributed to Charles Darwin's concept of evolution by natural
selection? Include a description of natural selection in your answer.
There are two source of his theory the first is the finches of the two islands, natural selection occurred when one island only had nuts and there other only had fruits the island with the nuts the finches had large beaks because they needed to crack the nuts while for the other island the finches have long beaks to get into fruit. The second source is the tortoises of the two islands one has a soft shell will the other has a hard shell.
Compare and contrast (how the same and how different) mutualism and commensalism.
Mutualism is a symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship, Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed. Mutualism is when both organisms benefit while, commensalism only one benefits but the other is neither helped nor harmed.
What can happen when an immune system overreacts to harmless pathogens?
When the immune system overreacts to harmless pathogens such as dust mites, pollen, and mold it causes an allergic reaction. This allergic reaction causes mast cells to release histamines which causes the watery eyes and stuffy nose.
Describe the stages of primary succession in a land environment. Make sure to mention the role
played by grasses, lichens, trees, mosses and shrubs. You may draw a picture to help you answer this question. Make sure to label the picture completely.
It starts with just rock then it develops into lichens and mosses which creates soil out of rock after grasses and shrubs grow to hold the soil in place after grass and shrubs, trees grow which hold soil together and provide habitats to animals.
Fossil evidence indicates that dolphins evolved from ancestors that walked on land. How can the concept of natural selection be use to explain how dolphins evolved?
There are three reason that might explain dolphins going back into the water that is predation, food source, and climate and who ever survived created offspring which will eventually evolve into dolphins.
Compare and contrast active and passive immunity. Include an explanation of how an individual develops each type.
Active immunity is the immunity that results from the production of antibodies by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen this could be obtained by a vaccination or a infection itself. Passive immunity is the short-term immunity that results from the introduction of antibodies from another person or animal this could be obtained by your mother when you were born. The difference between these two is one is inherited and the other is gained from a response to a infection.
If the lymphatic vessels were block, what would be the immediate effects on the human body
If the lymphatic vessels were blocked then it can not fight infections as effective
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