a morpheme that can stand on its own. For example, mean (but not ing or ful)
these must be combined with free morphemes to form complete words
the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix
the change in the form of a word, often by addition of endings, to indicate tense, person, number, gender, mood, voice, or case. Examples: he. him, his; sing, sang, sung
words that are written differently, and have different meaning, but which have the same sound. Examples: there, their, they're; too, two
words that are written and pronounced the same way, but which have different meanings Example: bark in the joke: Why did the cat run from the tree? Because it saw the tree bark
relates to the relationship between words represented by the formula 'X is a type of Y'. Examples: a mango is a type of fruit (mango is a h________ of fruit: 'fruit' is the superordinate of mango, banana, pineapple, etc)
refers to words that frequently occur together. Can be grammatical, lexical, 'weak' or 'strong'
Originally developed at part of Halliday's systemic functional linguistics, this term is used in ELT to describe approaches and theories that focus on how words are chosen in a way that influences subsequent forms
refers to words that have a common, or core meaning: for example, 'chip' can mean (1) a piece of fried potato, (2) a small piece of wood, or (3) an electronic component, but all of these words have a core meaning (a small piece of smth)
refers to a word's good, bad, humourous, old-fashioned or other associations
multi word unit
combinations of two or more words that are equivalent to single words, e.g. walking stick, fed up, put up with
a combination of a verb and one or two particles (a particle is either an adverb or a preposition). Examples: look after, go out, come across
refers to the suggestion that hearing or reading a word or phrase along with its collocates will 'prime' (lead you to expect) it in a similar context or with the same grammar in the future
an element that is added to a word and which changes its meaning. Types are prefixes and suffixes
an affix added to the end of a word to change its meaning, for example -ship, -ation, -ly
an affix which is inserted within the root or stem of a word, e.g. abso-bloomin'-lutely fan-freakin'-tastic
sets of words that share a meaning relationship because they relate to a particular topic or situation. For example, 'restaurant', 'tip', 'bill' and 'waiter' would all belong to a restaurant situation
a number of words that are learned as a single unit, including collocations ('heavy rain', not 'strong rain') and phrases 'make yourself at home'
refers to the way language use varies according to context, purpose and audience.
field (what is being talked or written about), tenor (relationship between participants in discourse) and mode (written or spoken)