Upgrade to remove ads
Biology Final Short Answer Exam
Terms in this set (23)
Identify biotic and abiotic factors.
Biotic factors are alive, abiotic are nonliving.
How does artificial selection differ from natural selection? Give an example of each.
Artificial selection breeds the best genes, such as bred racehorses. Natural selection is bred by nature, through survival of the fittest.
Why do animals such as bony fish, turtles, birds and deer belong in the same Phylum?
They all have vertebrae and bones, and therefore are in the vertebrata phylum.
Identify the four chambers of the heart. Then use them to write a description of the path blood travels through the heart.
Right and left atriums and ventricles. The right atrium receives blood from the body, and the right ventricle pumps blood from the body to lungs. Blood returns to the left atrium and the left ventricle pumps blood out the aorta to distribute blood through the body.
What is a codon, and what is its function?
A group of three nucleotide bases in mRNA that specify a particular amino acid to be incorporated into a protein.
Describe the idea of species having a common ancestor. Explain homologous and analogous structures.
Homologous structures (similar structures of different species of common ancestry) are adapted to different purposes and are the result of descent with modification from a common ancestor. Analogous structures are body parts that share a common function but are not structurally related.
In the immune system, T-cells concentration of a person infected with HIV changes over time. Describe what is causing this change.
HIV replicates in the body, but each T-cell only can recognize one antigen. Therefore, the concentration changes because the T-cells are struggling to target the disease while dying and reproducing the cells.
Be able to look up the name of an amino acid when the mRNA codon is given.
Different bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U). Work from inside out of the round chart to identify the amino acid.
How many terms make up the scientific name of a species? How is that name distinguished in print from the common name of a species?
Two terms. It is italicized- genus is capitalized, species is lowercase.
Explain the roles of photosynthesis and respiration in the carbon cycle.
Respiration provides carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Plants convert carbon dioxide into oxygen through photosynthesis.
Explain the process of translation.
1. A ribosome attaches to an mRNA molecule in the cytoplasm- then, tRNAs bring amino acids into the ribosome (also carry anticodons) as each codon passes through. The amino acids are attached to the growing polypeptide chain.
2. The ribosome makes a peptide bond between the first two amino acids. As this occurs, the bond holding the first tRNA molecule to its amino acid breaks. The tRNA leaves the ribosome from an exit site. The ribosome moves to the next codon as another tRNA carries in the specified amino acid.
3. The polypeptide chain grows until a "stop" codon is reached on the mRNA. The process completes as the ribosome releases the chain and mRNA molecule.
What sources of evidence contributed to Darwin's concept of evolution by natural selection? Include a description of natural selection in your answer.
Natural selection involves organisms with traits that are the best match to their environment survive and leave more offspring. The evidence: organisms produce more offspring than can actually survive, offspring inherit traits to help them survive (adaptions), and individuals with adaptions will have high fitness- survival of the fittest.
Compare and contrast mutualism and commensalism.
Both are relationships in which at least one organism benefits. In mutualism, both organisms benefit, but in commensalism, the organism that does not benefit is not helped or harmed.
What can happen when an immune system overreacts to harmless pathogens?
Allergies develop, which causes mast cells to release histamine. Asthma can occur, which causes air passages to narrow. And autoimmune disease can happen, causing the immune system to attack itself.
Describe the stages of primary succession in a land environment. Make sure to mention the role played by grasses, lichens, trees, mosses, and shrubs.
Primary succession is succession beginning in an area that has no existing community. It begins with pioneer species, such as lichens- they grow on bare rock. They add organic matter and form soil. Mosses and other plants are then able to grow, including trees.
Fossil evidence indicates that dolphins evolved from ancestors that walked on land. How can the concept of natural selection be used to explain how dolphins evolved?
The concept can be used because the ancestors were well-adapted to their environment, and continued to evolve. They evolved from walking on land to water because of changes in their environment, which they adapted to.
Compare and contrast active and passive immunity. Include an explanation of how an individual develops each type.
Both are processes of immunity to diseases. However, active immunity is developed through cells or vaccines, and building up an immunity to a sickness. Passive immunity is developed when a disease is passed down genetically.
List and explain the steps in protein synthesis.
Why does a river ecosystem often support little plant life at its source? Describe how the ecosystem changes to support organisms as it flows.
The flow of a river moves too fast for plants to be able to form in the soil and grow. The speed of the flow changes and allows plants to eventually grow, which also attracts animals to the riverbanks.
If the lymphatic vessels were blocked, what would be the immediate effects on the human body?
You would immediately become more susceptible to disease and possibly die.
How can different population sizes affect density in areas of the same size? Give an example.
There could be a low population of deer in a forest, but a higher population of bears in a different forest. The density would be higher or lower depending on the population sizes.
Explain the process of DNA replication.
The DNA molecule separates into two strands, then the process makes two new strands following the rules of base pairing. The strand of the double helix of DNA is a template for a new strand. The two strands of the double helix separate, making two replication forks. Each new strand has bases added, such as adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine. The result is two identical DNA molecules.
What is the difference between exponential growth and logistic growth in relation to populations?
Exponential growth involves the individuals in a population reproducing at a constant rate. Logistic growth involves the population's growth rate slowing down or stoping after a period of exponential growth.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Biology Short Answer Exam Review
Biology sem. 2 final EDDY
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
I want chicken wings
Chemistry Final Study Guide
New Testament: Final - Roer, Castanada, Timmes