Environmental Bio exam 3
Terms in this set (86)
What percentage of Haiti's original forests remains compared to those that existed prior to European settlement?
2 % original forests remains today
How are forest biomes determined
Temperature and precipitation
Coniferous forests (evergreens) found at high latitudes and altitudes characterized by low temperatures and annual precipitation. They have thin acidic soil and a short growing season
Deciduous and evergreen trees. Found in mid latitudes. Distinct seasons and rich soil
Warm year round, Wet & dry season. Thin, acidic soil low in nutrients. Rapid decomposition by fungi and bacteria support dense vegetation
First layer in forest structure, rises above canopy
Second layer in forest structure, Upper layer of a forest formed where the crowns (tops) of the majority of the tallest trees meet
Third layer in forest structure, The smaller trees, shrubs, and saplings that live in the shade of the forest canopy
Last layer in forest structure, The lowest level of the forest
How do trees adapt to living in each level?
Timing of blooming, Take advantage of adaptations
What are services provided by forests
Watershed purification, sink for carbon dioxide, recycling nutrients, reduction of soil erosion
Approximately ____________ people make their living in and from forests
What is deforestation?
Taking more trees than are replaced
What are carbon sinks?
An area that stores more carbon than it releases, such as the standing timber in a forest or organic matter
Trees and shrubs that are adapted to shade would be found in which layer of a forest?
The term for trees that lose their leaves on an annual basis is
Water that flows downhill over the land surface, usually after a rainfall event, is called
Woodland wildflowers adapt to the limited sunlight on the forest floor by
flowering and setting seeds before the trees above them leaf out
What are some major causes of global deforestation?
logging, cattle ranching, large farms, pests, charcoal production
Why are the Long Leaf Pines valued highly and how did the become endangered?
They are highly resistant to fire and won't rot. Endangered due to clear-cutting, soil erosion, big fires, and feral hogs
Multiple-Use Sustained-Yield Act:
national forest managed to accommodate multiple uses
Maximum Sustainable Yield:
take max amount for most $ and long-term
What are the four methods of forest harvesting practices?
Clear cutting, strip harvest, select harvest, shelterwood harvest
What are ways to protect forests?
Ecotourism, Charge for ecosystem services, Parks & laws, balancing trade offs ( human needs vs environments needs)
The lowering of the Ph of the oceans is known as
What are consequences of ocean acidification?
As pH shifts, the availability of key nutrients like nitrogen and oxygen will change. This will de-calify shells, exoskeletons, corals, etc
Nutrient rich areas where shallow rivers meet the ocean are known as
What are the zones in Nertic: near shore
Intertidal and Subtidal
Which ocean zone does light penetrate?
What is the Oceans depth zones from shallow to deep?
Epipelagic, Mesopelagic, Bathypelagic, Abyssopelagic, Hadopelagic
What are threats to sharks?
overfishing and finning
The sex of turtles is determined by
What are threats to turtles?
beach lighting, poaching (ppl that eat the eggs), trash, habitat loss, caught in fishing
What are threats to Whales and Dolphins?
Pollution, recovery from whaling, boating/shipping traffic, hunting, mass strandings
Places where many marine organisms develop are called
What are Mangroves and how are they threatened?
They are salt-tolerant plants, they block salt uptake or excrete it. They are threatened by coastal development
What are Seagrass beds and their threats?
They are fully marine flowering plant, limited to shallow water. They are threatened by coastal development, boating, sea levels rising
Coral reefs are limited to shallow water, and there is a concern that rising sea levels will affect the reefs. This is because
their symbiotic zooxanthellae require light to survive
The skeleton of coral is mostly composed of
All the following actions would threaten the oceans ability to provide ecosystem goods and services except:
A) spilling gasoline while fueling your lawn mower
B) dumping motor oil down storm drains
C) fishing using bottom trawlers
D) Soil erosion from construction sites
E) Installing solar panels
E) Installing solar panels
What percentage of reefs are threatened?
What causes coral bleaching?
high temperatures, pollution, dumb tourist ( ppl stepping on coral)
What are threats to reefs?
Pollution, invasive species, overfishing, change in sea level, warming of oceans, ocean acidification
What are some destructive fishing practices?
Cyanide, Dynamite, Long-lining, Shark finning, Overfishing, Disabling TEDS
Xetospongia muta is
a giant barrel sponge found in crevices, out in the open
What are ways to protect the marine ecosystem?
Pollution controls, fishing regulations, decrease carbon footprint, Marine Protected Areas, tradeoffs
What percentage of earths surface is water and what percent of it is usable by humans?
75% of earths surface is water. Only 1% is usable by humans
What were the consequences of the California water supply?
They had to use wastewater in the county's drinking supply
How did the Orange County Water District solve the problem of saltwater intrusion into unconfined coastal aquifers?
It began to pump highly treated sewage wastewater into infiltrated wells
What is the World Health Organization's estimate for those without access to clean water?
_________ is an underground, permeable region of soil or rock that is saturated with water
An area over which rain and other sources of water drain into a body of water is called a
What is infiltration?
The process of water soaking into the ground
Why should we recharge aquifers?
It decreases infiltration, which decreases the amount of sustainable water usage
What percentage of water usage is industrial and what percent is domestic?
22% to industry, 8% to domestic
The inflow of saltwater into an aquifer is called
What is Desalination and what are the cons?
It is the removal of salt and minerals from sea water. Cons: It is expensive and uses a lot of energy
Low dissolved oxygen levels result in
Water shortages lead to
What are some ways to solve water shortages?
Covert saltwater to FW, purify nasty water, build dams & reservoirs
Groundwater in aquifers is naturally replenished by
Coliform bacteria indicate the contamination of a water body with
The _____________ regulates industrial pollutants and sets allowable levels of pollutants that can be present in environmental waters or released over a certain period of time
Clean Water Act
What caused the Chesapeake Bay's decline?
A manhole cover line was popped open and raw sewage was pouring into the stream.
Anything that decreases water quality is
A process in which excess nutrients in aquatic ecosystems feed biological productivity, ultimately lowering the oxygen content in the water
What are pathogens and why are they a problem to water pollution?
They are disease-causing organisms that can be found in drugs such as antibiotics and birth control. This is a problem because our bodily fluids that contain these things gets into the water.
Why are metals a problem in water pollution?
Metals such as lead, cadmium, and Arsenic cause nervous system problems, kidney and liver problems, bone problems, cancers, and scaly skin/pigmentation.
What is Hypoxia and why is it a problem?
It is low levels of oxygen which causes slow moving organisms at risk
What are PCB's and what problems does it cause?
It is coolant fluids, transformers, electric motors, PCV coatings. It causes endocrine disrupter, neurotoxin, cancer, and liver destruction
What is sedimentation and what problems does it cause?
Sedimentation is silt, sand, and clay. Causes murky water(turbidity), decreases photosynthesis, clogs gills, and smothers benthic organisms (insects that live on the stream bottom)
What problems does mercury cause in water pollution?
It causes nervous system problems and birth defects
What causes pH in water pollution and why is it a problem?
Caused by dumping of acidic industrial wastes. This includes ammonia that makes water more basic which is bad and calcifying organisms are put at risk
what are the causes and problems of pesticide?
Pesticides are used to control fungi, bacteria, insects. Runoff carries it to rivers, lakes, ocean. This problem causes headaches, nausea, dizziness, endocrine disruption, reproductive disruption, cancer, and death
What are dead zones?
Places in the ocean where life just doesn't exist
Point Source Pollution
can "point" to where its coming from. ex: pipes, smokestacks etc.
Non Point Source Pollution
no single discharge point. ex: runoff, air pollution etc.
What are the causes of oysters decline?
Overfishing, Dredging, possibly eutrophication, more turbidity
Why are biological assessments helpful?
Can determine the health of an ecosystem by what is living there, abundances
What are solutions to water pollution?
Determine likely sources of pollution, decrease amount of pollution, reducing runoff
Why is rice farming in California an issue?
Rice farming requires rice to be submerged and weeds become a major problem
What is the solution to rice farming in California?
Herbicides and lots of ducks
What are green revolution 1.0 improvements?
It improves crops, brings modern agriculture to developing countries, High Yield Varieties, 100% increase in food
What is the problem with green revolution 1.0?
Excess fertilizer causes eutrophication, pesticides toxic, increasing food miles
What are the pros and cons of industrial farming: Monoculture crops?
Pros: single variety, easy to plant, maintain, harvest, clears lots of land. Cons: May not be locally adapted: more water, fertilizer, pesticides. Heavy machinery compacts soil, No genetic diversity.
What are the pros and cons of industrial farming: CAFOs?
Pros: raise animals in confined spaces, fed rich food (no grazing), easy to harvest, grass fed. Cons: global warming 18%, ethically questionable: rich diet not good for health, crowded, antibiotics
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