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Arts and Humanities
The Cold War Review Sheet
IB WORLD YEAR 1 FINAL; TOPIC 5
Terms in this set (48)
Cold War (1945-1995)
Intense economic, political, military, and ideological rivalry between nations, short of military conflict; sustained hostile political policies and an atmosphere of strain between East and West.
economic system based on a free market, open competition, profit motive and private
ownership of the means of production.
Term used by Winston Churchill in 1946 to describe the division between Western Europe and the Soviet zone of influence
A country that is formally independent, but is under heavy political and economic influence or control by another country
Significance: These states were very common during the Cold War. Russia took over most of them.
Harry S. Truman
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb.
Dictator of the Soviet Union; led them through World War II and created a powerful Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe after the war.
Leader of Cuba,
seized power and forced new communist government
John F. Kennedy
President during the Cuban Missile Crisis; limited military involvement in vietnam treated peace courp
Soviet leader during the time of the Cuban Missile Crisis.
US President; He promised peace with honor in Vietnam which means withdrawing American soldiers from South Vietnam
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War. And whose domestic policies of glasnost and perestroika introduced major reforms
President of the US at the end of the Cold War who was a strong anti-communist. He encouraged Americans to mistrust communists and to support military spending
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Stalin promised to allow free elections in Eastern Europe
meeting between Stalin, Churchill, and Truman to discuss post-WWII; compromise: each side would take reparations from its own occupation zone, divided up GER, created Council of Foreign Ministers; marked the end of wartime alliance
USA helped rebuild Europe by giving them money. This would increase foreign trade and prevent communism.
It lasted for more than a year and carried more than 2.3 million tons of cargo into West Berlin due to the blockade by Stalin.
(North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
A military alliance of twenty-eight North American and European countries formed in 1949. The role of the
organization is to safeguard the freedom and security of its member countries by political and military
An organization formed 1955 comprising Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany,
Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the U.S.S.R., for collective defense under a joint military command
Nuclear Arms Race
Competition of supreme nuclear warfare between the two countries Russia and the United States with their respective allies
Ordered by Truman, the first U.S. H-bomb was exploded in 1952. The Soviets exploded their first H-bomb in 1953, and the nuclear arms race entered a dangerously competitive cycle
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea. China helped North Korea. It began and ended with division at the 38th parallel
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
1956 -Series of demonstrations in Hungary against the Soviet Union in which Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev violently suppressed this pro-Western uprising, highlighting the limitations of American's power in Eastern Europe. Hungarian leader Imre Nagy was removed fom power and executed
The Berlin Wall was a fortified wall made up of concrete and barbed wire made to prevent East Germans escaping to West Berlin. It was one of the most visible and symbolic signs of the Cold War and the Iron Curtain.
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
Cuban Missile Crisis
An international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later
A conflict, starting in 1954 and ending in 1975, between South Vietnam (later aided by
the U.S.) against the Vietcong and North
Vietnam. Communism spread to S.V. in 1975
The battle between the U.S. and the Soviet Union to be the "best" in exploring space.
Any of a series of Soviet satellites sent into Earth orbit, especially the first, launched October
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)
Treaty signed in 1972 between the U.S. and the USSR. This agreement limited the number of missiles in each nation and led to the SALT II discussions and a slowdown of the arms race between the two countries.
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
Relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China.
In December 1979, Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan; this action ended detente. President Carter reacted by (1) placing an embargo on grain exports and the sale of high technology to the Soviet Union and (2) boycotting the 1980 Olympics in Moscow.
Fall of Communism / Break up of the USSR
Gorbachev announced the dissolution of the USSR on Dec. 25,1991. Several of the republics would eventually join NATO
Fall of Berlin Wall
In 1989, the Berlin Wall came down. The fall of the wall marked an end to Soviet influence in the country and allowed for Germany to become reunited.
The leader of Solidarity and the first democratically elected leader of Poland
The USA plan to remove troops from Vietnam War. Completed in 1973. Saigon fell to communism in 1975
North Vietnamese military campaign in 1968 that turned many Americans against the Vietnam War
The USA plan to aid any country threatened by communism. The aid was first given to Turkey and Greece.
If one nation is allowed to fall to communism then neighboring countries will fall next
Chinese leader who began the Cultural Revolution and the Great Leap Forward
Chinese leader who began a mixed economy
Ho Chi Minh
nationalist and communist leader in N. Vietnam
The process of exposing the truth in the USSR about Stalin
The nation created for Jewish people in 1948 in Palestine
The British "iron lady" who was a close friend of President Reagan
Bay of Pigs Invasion
A failed attempt to overthrow Castro in 1961
Leader of India who created a federal system and the world's largest democracy
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