List two reasons for the rise of the bishop of Rome to prominence over other bishops?
it was the most important city of the empire, (and after Rome's fall) one of the few sources of authority in the West.
What term describes a religious act (necessary for salvation) that automatically grants spiritual benefit to the one who does it?
List 7 sacraments of the Roman Catholic church.
4. the eucharist
6. holy orders
7. extreme unction
identify the brothers and the portion of the Carolingian which each received:
Charles the Bald: received the West Frankland.
Louis The German: received East Frankland
Lothair: as oldest, remained the emperor and ruled the land between his brother's kingdoms.
What two "stages" of preparation did a young man go through to become a knight?
A page and a squire.
What two types of activities were part of the typical trounaments among knights?
The Joust and melee.
Why did the peasants work for their lord and give him part of the crops they raised?
it was in return for the use of the Lord's land and his protection.
How did Charlemagne organize his realm?
by dividing it into hundreds of small areas that were each ruled by courts
What were Charlemagne's contributions to the advancement of learning?
he gathered scholars, encouraged clergy to be better educated, helped with the re-discovery and preservation of classical and Biblical manuscripts.
List the names of three men who filled the office of the mayor of the palace:
Pepin the 2nd, Charles Martel, and Pepin the Short.
What role did the three men who filled the office of the mayor of the palace play in the history of the Franks
Pepin defeated all of the other mayors and united the territories under one rule. Charles Martel stopped the advance of the Muslims into Europe, and Pepin the Short gained the position of King and was crowned by pope, then protected the papacy and donated land to the pope.
Which group of the three groups invaded Europe in the ninth and tenth centruies caused the most damage? How?
The Vikings, by raiding areas quickly, and attacking through the Atlantic ocean.