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List two reasons for the rise of the bishop of Rome to prominence over other bishops?

it was the most important city of the empire, (and after Rome's fall) one of the few sources of authority in the West.

What term describes a religious act (necessary for salvation) that automatically grants spiritual benefit to the one who does it?

a sacrament.

List 7 sacraments of the Roman Catholic church.

1. Baptism
2. Confirmation
3. penance
4. the eucharist
5. marriage
6. holy orders
7. extreme unction

Into what two groups were the members of the Roman church divided?

laity and clergy.

What Man united the Frankish tribes and became known as "King of the Franks"?


What palace official became the real power behind the Fankish throne?

The Mayor of the Palace.

At what battle and in what year did Charles Martel defeat the Muslims?

732, the Battle of Tours.

Under whose rule did the Frankish empire reach its peak?


Name the treaty that split the Carolingian Empire into three parts

The Treaty of Verdun

identify the brothers and the portion of the Carolingian which each received:

Charles the Bald: received the West Frankland.
Louis The German: received East Frankland
Lothair: as oldest, remained the emperor and ruled the land between his brother's kingdoms.

What was the land granted by kings to nobles in return for their service called?


What place was the center of life for the nobility?

the castle.

What two "stages" of preparation did a young man go through to become a knight?

A page and a squire.

Name the strict code that governed knightly behavior

the code of chivalry.

What two types of activities were part of the typical trounaments among knights?

The Joust and melee.

Where did the majority of people in Europe live during the Middle Ages?

the manor.

What two buildings dominated the manor?

The Lord's House and The Church.

Name the term that describes the peasant laboroers on the manor:


Why did the peasants work for their lord and give him part of the crops they raised?

it was in return for the use of the Lord's land and his protection.

Why was Charlemagne called "the Great"?

because of his character and accomplishments.

How did Charlemagne organize his realm?

by dividing it into hundreds of small areas that were each ruled by courts

What were Charlemagne's contributions to the advancement of learning?

he gathered scholars, encouraged clergy to be better educated, helped with the re-discovery and preservation of classical and Biblical manuscripts.

List the names of three men who filled the office of the mayor of the palace:

Pepin the 2nd, Charles Martel, and Pepin the Short.

What role did the three men who filled the office of the mayor of the palace play in the history of the Franks

Pepin defeated all of the other mayors and united the territories under one rule. Charles Martel stopped the advance of the Muslims into Europe, and Pepin the Short gained the position of King and was crowned by pope, then protected the papacy and donated land to the pope.

What three groups invaded Europe in the ninth and tenth centruies?

Muslim Raiders, Magyars, Vikings

Which group of the three groups invaded Europe in the ninth and tenth centruies caused the most damage? How?

The Vikings, by raiding areas quickly, and attacking through the Atlantic ocean.

Feudalism has been described as "chaos roughtly organized" Is this description accurate? Explain:

Yes. Feudalism was developed as result of political and economic chaos and it provided a semblance of order.

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