33 terms

Chapter 6 Roman Empire

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republic
a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders
patricians
wealthy landowners who held most of the power during the early republic of Rome.
plebians
the common farmers, artisans and merchants who made up the majority of the Roman population.
tribunes
Elected representatives of the plebian assembly.
consuls
Two roman officials who commanded the army and directed the government.
senate
aristocratic branch of Rome's government. Its 300 members of the upper class had both legislative and administrative functions in the republic. Plebians were later allowed in the senate.
Dictator
In times of crisis, the republic could appoint this person - a leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army. Their power lasted for only 6 months. Dictators were chosen by the consuls and then elected by the senate.
legions
Large military units of Roman soldiers made up of 5,000 heavily armed foot soldiers (infantry).
Punic Wars
Long struggle between Rome and Carthage. (264-146 BC; 218-202 BC; 149-146 BC)
Hannibal
Carthaginian general who fought against Rome in the Second Punic War.
Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus
Two brothers who were tribunes proposed reforms to help Rome's poor. Both met violent deaths in 133 BC and 121 BC respectively that led to civil war.
Julius Caesar
Military leader in 60 BC who was elected consul in 59 BC, self appointed governor of Gaul, dictator in 46 BC and then was named dictator for life in 44 BC.
Triumverate
Group of three rulers (Julius Caesar, Crassus, Pompey) - 59-49 BC; Octavian, Mark Antony, Lepidus (46-36 BC);
Octavian
Caesar's grandnephew who was a member of the Second Triumverate who accepted the title of Augustus or "exalted one". He was the first emperor of Rome.
Pax Romana
Known as the Roman Peace, it was a period of 207 years (27 BC - 180 AD) that included peace and prosperity.
Jesus
A Jew born in Bethlehem who publicly ministered his teachings, belief in one god and the principles of the Ten Commandments. He was considered the Messiah. It was from this belief that he came to be referred to as Jesus Christ. Christos is a Greek word meaning "messiah" or "savior". The name Christianity was derived from Christ".
Pontius Pilate
Roman Governor who accused Jesus of defying the authority of Rome. He arrested Jesus and sentenced him to be crucified, or nailed to a large wooden cross to die.
apostle
Jesus' disciples or followers that included 12 men.
Gospels
The first four books of the New Testament.
Paul
This apostle who had a vision of Jesus, and spent the rest of his life spreading and interpreting Jesus' teachings. He had a large influence over Christianity's development, but never met Jesus when he was alive.
Diaspora
the dispersal of Jews from their homeland (132 A.D.).
Constantine
In 312 AD, this Roman emperor credited the success of a battle in 312 AD due to the help of a Christian god. He orded artisans to put the Christian cross on his soldiers' shields. In 313 AD, he announced an end to the persecution of Christians through the Edict of Milan. In 330 A.D., he moved the capital from Rome to the Greek city of Byzantium
Theodosius
In 380 AD, this Roman emperor made Christianity the empire's official religion.
bishop
Was also a priest who supervised several local churches.
Peter
This apostle traveled to Rome from Jerusalem and became the first bishop. He also became the first pope, the father or head of the Christian Church.
Marcus Aurelius
(161-180 AD) Roman Emperor whose reign marked the end of the Pax Romana.
inflation
drop in the value of money coupled with a rise in prices.
mercenaries
foreign solders who fought for money.
Diocletian
In 284 AD, this emperor divided the empire (because it was too big) into two areas - Greek-speaking East & Latin speaking West.
Constantinople
Was a city that was renamed "Byzantium"
Atila the Hun
Powerful chieftain from the Huns who terrorized both halves of the Roman Empire.
aqueducts
Roman engineers designed these to bring water into cities and towns.
Twelve Tables
Roman written law code that was carved in 12 tablets and hung in the Forum.
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