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51 terms

Chapter 12-T's

medical terms and disease definitions
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T cell
a variety of white blood cell that orchestrates the immune system;s response to infected or malignant cells
Tachycardia
relatively rapid heart action whether physiological or pathological
Tachypnea
increased rate of respiration. Tachypnea can upset the balance of gases in the blood by decreasing the levels of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream
Tarsorrhaphy
the operation of suturing the eyelids together entirely or in part
Tendinitis
the painful inflammation of the strong fibrous structures, called tendons that connect muscles to bones
Tendon
a fibrous cord that attaches a muscle in place, often to a bone or to cartilage
Tenorrhaphy
suture of a tendon
Testicular carcinoma
malignant tumor originating in the testes
Testis
one of two paired male organs in the scrotal sac
Testosterone
a hormone that produces male secondary sex characteristics
Tetanus
an acute infectious disease characterized by tonic spasm of voluntary muscles and especially of the muscles of the jaw and caused by the specific toxin produced by a bacterium
Thoracentesis
a procedure in which fluid is removed from the space around the lungs
Thoracotomy
a surgical incision of the chest wall
Thorax
the part of the mammalian body that is situated between the neck and the abdomen and supported by the ribs, costal cartilages, and sternum
Thrombectomy
a surgical procedure to remove a thrombus that has formed in a blood vessel and is blocking blood flow through it
Thrombosis
abnormal condition of clot formation
Thrombus
blood clot
Thymoma
tumor of the thymus gland
Thymus
a glandular structure of largely lymphoid tissue that functions in cell mediated immunity by being the site where Tcells develop, that is present in the young of most certebrates typically in the upper anterior chest or at the base of the neck that arises from the epithelium of one or more embryonic branchial clefts, and that tends to disappear or become rudimentary in the adult
Thyroidectomy
removal of the thyroid gland
Thyroid gland
a large bilobed endocrine gland of craniate vertebrates that arises as a median ventral outgrowth of the pharynx, lies in the anterior base of the neck or anterior central part of the thorax, is often accompanied by lateral accessory glands sometimes more or less fused with the main mass, and produces especially the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine
Thyroid hormones
chemicals produced in the thyroid gland and released directly into the bloodstream by the thyroid
Thyroid stimulating hormone
hormone secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate the thyroid gland to produce its hormones, such as thyroxine TSH
Thyroxine
hormone secreted by the thyroid gland
Tibia
larger of the two lower leg bones, the shin bone
Tinea
any of several fungal diseases of the skin
Tinnitus
a sensation of noise that is caused by a bodily condition and can be heard only by the one affected
Tissue
an aggregate of cells usually of a particular kind together with their intercellular substance that form one of the structural materials of a plant or an animal and that in animals include connective tissue, epithelium, muscle tissue, and nerve tissue.
Tomography
Series of xray images that show an organ in depth by producing images of single tissue planes
tonometry
an instrument for measuring tension or pressure and especially intraocular pressure
Tonsillectomy
Surgical excision of the tonsils as a treatment for severe, recurrent tonsillitis or for tonsils that obstruct the airway
Tonsillitis
inflammation of the tonsils
Tonsils
lymphatic tissue in the back of the mouth near the throat
Toxic Shock Syndrome
a rare disorder that mostly occurs in menstruating women who use tampons
Toxin
a substance used to mark and indicate the course of a chemical or biological process inside the body
Tracer
a substance used to mark and indicate the course of a chemical or biological process inside the body
Trachea
the main trunk of the system of tubes by which air passes to and from the lungs that is about 4 inches long and somewhat less that an inch in diameter, extends down the front of the neck from the larynx, divides in two to form the bronchi, has walls of fibrous and muscular tissue stiffened by incomplete cartilaginous rings which keep it from collapsing, and is lined with mucous membrane whose epithelium is composed of columnar ciliated mucus secreting cells. Windpipe
Traction
a treatment procedure that uses a pulling force to prevent or reduce muscle spasm, to keep a joint or other body party stationary, or to hold the ends of broken bones in place
Transfusion
a procedure for infusing blood or blood components into a person's bloodstream
Transplant surgery
a procedure in which a diseased organ or tissue is replaced with a healthy donor organ
Traumatology
a branch of surgery used to treat trauma
Treatment
a course of medical or surgical care
Tremor
involuntary, rhythmic muscle movement caused by alternate contraction and relaxation of the muscles
Trephine
a surgical instrument used for cutting a circular hole
Trichomoniasis
a human sexually transmitted disease occurring especially as vaginitis with a persistent discharge and caused by a teichomonad that may also invade the male urethra and bladder
Triglycerides
any group of lipids that are esters composed of one molecule of glycerol and three molecules of one or more fatty acids, are widespread in adipose tissue, and commonly circulate in the blood in the form of lipoproteins. This is also called natural fat
Trismus
Spasm of the chewing muscles in the jaw.
Truss
a device worn to hold an intestine or other tissue in place when it protrudes through the abdominal wall
Tuberculosis
a usually chronic highly variable disease that is caused by the tubercle bacillus and rarely in the US by a related mycobacterium, is usually communicated by inhalation of the airborne causative agent, affects especially the lungs but may spread to other areas.
Tuberosity
a rounded protuberance that is usually found on a bone at the point where muscles or ligaments are attached
Tumor
a new abnormal growth of tissue in which the reproduction of cells in uncontrolled and escalating