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Arts and Humanities
History Final: Key Terms
Terms in this set (88)
New laws which supported religious discrimination and racist nazi ideas. The laws excluded German Jews from Reich citizenship and prohibited them from marrying or having sexual relations with persons of "German or related blood."
November 9, 1938, when almost 200 synagogues were destroyed, over 8,000 Jewish shops were vandalised, and tens of thousands of Jews were removed to concentration camps (aka: the night of broken glass)
German Invasion of France:
May 10 1940- June 6 1944, German forces defeated Allied forces with mobile troops and conquered France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, bringing land operations on the Western Front to an end
an international monetary agreement entered by the United States, France, and Great Britain in September 1936 to stabilize their nations' currencies both at home and in the international exchange markets.
On January 20, 1942, 15 high-ranking Nazi Party and German government officials met in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee to discuss the implementation of what they called the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question.", basically their plan to eradicate as many jews as possible.
a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base on the morning of December 7, 1941.
Battle of Midway:
A naval and air battle fought in World War II in which planes from American aircraft carriers blunted the Japanese naval threat in the Pacific Ocean after Pearl Harbor.
Rape of Nanjing:
mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Bombing of Tokyo:
a series of firebombing air raids by the United States Army Air Forces during the Pacific campaigns of World War II begining in April 1942.
an island in the west pacific that was the scene of prolonged fighting between US and Japanese forces until taken by the US in 1945; returned to Japan in 1968.
the largest of the ryukyu islands, it was the scene of fierce combat between the Japanese and US Army and Marine forces from April 1 to June 21, 1945
the mass murder of six million Jews and millions of other people leading up to, and during, World War II
Battle of Britain:
a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.
German invasion of the USSR:
Under the codename Operation "Barbarossa," Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, in the largest German military operation of World War II.
The Battle of Stalingrad (July 17, 1942-Feb. 2, 1943), was the successful Soviet defense of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in the U.S.S.R. during World War II. It stopped the German advance into the Soviet Union and marked the turning of the tide of war in favor of the Allies.
Bombing of Hamburg:
allied bombing during World War II that included numerous attacks on civilians. shipyards, U-boat pens, and oil refineries throughout the war.
Bombing of Dresden:
a British/American aerial bombing attack on the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II
June 6, 1944—the day of the Normandy landings—initiating the Western Allied effort to liberate mainland Europe from Nazi Germany.
the second wartime meeting of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. During the conference, the three leaders agreed to demand Germany's unconditional surrender and began plans for a post-war world.
On May 7, 1945, Germany signed an unconditional surrender at Allied headquarters in Reims, France, to take effect the following day, ending the European conflict of World War II.
in 1945 the Big Three (Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill, and Harry Truman) met in Potsdam, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945, to negotiate terms for the end of World War II.
Bombing of Hiroshima:
On August 6, 1945, during World War II (1939-45), an American B-29 bomber dropped the world's first deployed atomic bomb over the Japanese city
Bombing of Nagasaki:
a second atom bomb dropped on Japan by the United States, at Nagasaki, that resulted in Japan's surrender.
Nuremberg Trials begin:
a series of trials held between 1945 and 1949 in which the Allies prosecuted German military leaders, political officials, industrialists, and financiers for crimes they had committed during world war ii.
a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation.
Schutzstaffel paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II.
Dwight D. Eisenhower:
American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons. It was led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada.
a statement that called for the surrender of all Japanese armed forces during World War II.
War Refugee Board:
a U.S. executive agency to aid civilian victims of the Nazi and Axis powers. established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in January 1944
Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek)
a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975.
the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
originally named the All India Muslim League, political group that led the movement calling for a separate Muslim nation to be created
an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah:
a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan. He served as the leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistan's independence on 14 August 1947
The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started just after the partition of India in 1947
India and Pakistan granted independence:
The Indian Independence Act 1947 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan.
United Nations established:
A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II with the aim of preventing another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states;
Truman Doctrine announced:
an American foreign policy whose stated purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War. It was first announced to Congress by President Harry S.Truman on March 12, 1947
Marshall Plan begins:
an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
international crisis that arose from an attempt by the Soviet Union, in 1948-49, to force the Western Allied powers (the United States, the United Kingdom, and France) to abandon their post-World War II jurisdictions in West Berlin.
NATO alliance formed:
an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries based on the North Atlantic Treaty that was signed on 4 April 1949.
The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a beach ball (58 cm.or 22.8 inches in diameter), weighed only 83.6 kg. or 183.9 pounds, launched by the soviet union
Khrushchev's secret speech:
denunciation of the deceased Soviet leader Joseph Stalin made by Nikita S. Khrushchev to a closed session of the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Communists take power in China (Nationalists flee to Taiwan):
As they steadily lose ground to the communist forces of Mao Zedong, Chinese Nationalist leaders depart for the island of Taiwan, where they establish their new capital. Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek left for the island the following day.
UN Genocide Convention passed:
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260. The Convention entered into force on 12 January 1951.
Chinese Civil War:
a war fought between the Kuomintang-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China.
the notional barrier separating the former Soviet bloc and the West prior to the decline of communism that followed the political events in eastern Europe in 1989.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries based on the North Atlantic Treaty that was signed on 4 April 1949.
a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party
a militant youth movement in China (1966-76) that carried out attacks on intellectuals and other disfavored groups as part of Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution.
John F. Kennedy:
an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border
Castro's revolution in Cuba:
an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
Geneva Accords divided Vietnam:
a conference among several nations that took place in Geneva, Switzerland from April 26 - July 20, 1954. It was intended to settle outstanding issues resulting from the Korean War and the First Indochina War.
Great Leap Forward:
an era in China where industrial growth was based on small-scale backyard workshops and steel mills run by peasants living in gigantic self-contained communes.
incident that occurred during the Cold War on 1 May 1960, during the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower and the premiership of Nikita Khrushchev, when a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down while in Soviet airspace.
"Bay of Pigs" invasion:
a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17
Berlin Wall is built:
a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
Cuban Missile Crisis:
a direct and dangerous confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War and was the moment when the two superpowers came closest to nuclear conflict.
Gulf of Tonkin Incident:
an international confrontation that led to the United States engaging more directly in the Vietnam War.
American combat troops enter Vietnam:
March 8, 1965 - The first U.S. combat troops arrive in Vietnam as 3500 Marines land at China Beach to defend the American air base at Da Nang. They join 23,000American military advisors already in Vietnam.
Tet Offensive in Vietnam:
In late January, 1968, during the lunar new year (or "Tet") holiday, North Vietnamese and communist Viet Cong forces launched a coordinated attack against a number of targets in South Vietnam.
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution:
In the 1960s, Chinese Communist Party leader Mao Zedong came to feel that the current party leadership in China, as in the Soviet Union, was moving too far in a revisionist direction, with an emphasis on expertise rather than on ideological purity.
Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan:
In December 1979, in the midst of the Cold War, the Soviet 40th Army Invaded Afghanistan in order to prop up the communist government of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) against a growing insurgency. ... The Soviet Union feared the loss of its communist proxy in Afghanistan.
American combat troops leave Vietnam:
March 29, 1973 - The last remaining American troops withdraw from Vietnam as President Nixon declares "the day we have all worked and prayed for has finally come." America's longest war, and its first defeat, thus concludes.
Soviet Union withdraws from Afghanistan:
The final and complete withdrawal of Soviet Combatant forces from Afghanistan began on 15 May 1988 and ended on 15 February 1989 under the leadership of Colonel-General Boris Gromov.
Berlin Wall comes down:
On November 9, 1989, as the Cold War began to thaw across Eastern Europe, the spokesman for East Berlin's Communist Party announced a change in his city's relations with the West. Starting at midnight that day, he said, citizens of the GDR were free to cross the country's borders.
Solidarity legalized in Poland:
In April 1989 the government agreed to legalize Solidarity and allow it to participate in free elections to a bicameral Polish parliament
an abbreviation for "Staatssicherheit" (state security). That is what the East Germans called the Ministry of State Security, which was officially abbreviated " MfS ". The Stasi had two functions: It worked as both a secret service and a secret police.
Soviet Union breaks up:
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union. It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.
the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic became part of the Federal Republic of Germany to form the reunited nation of Germany,
a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
a member of a communist-dominated nationalist movement, formed in 1941, that fought for Vietnamese independence from French rule. Members of the Vietminh later joined with the Vietcong
an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, and sabotage
the easing of hostility or strained relations, especially between countries.
a Russian and former Soviet politician. He was the eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, having been General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991.
the policy or practice of more open consultative government and wider dissemination of information, initiated by leader Mikhail Gorbachev from 1985.
the policy or practice of restructuring or reforming the economic and political system. First proposed by Leonid Brezhnev in 1979 and actively promoted by Mikhail Gorbachev, perestroika originally referred to increased automation and labor efficiency, but came to entail greater awareness of economic markets and the ending of central planning.
Ngo Dinh Diem:
a South Vietnamese politician. A former mandarin of the Nguyễn dynasty, he was named Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam by Head of State Bảo Đại in 1954.
Ho Chi Minh:
a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.
a Chinese politician. He was the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China from 1978 until his retirement in 1989.
commonly known in mainland China as the June Fourth Incident, were student-led demonstrations in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China, in 1989.
a United States policy using numerous strategies to prevent the spread of communism abroad. A component of the Cold War, this policy was a response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to enlarge its communist sphere of influence in Eastern Europe, China, Korea, and Vietnam.
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