14 terms

What does stochastic mean?

Outputs are not predictable

What is the opposite of stochastic?

Deterministic

What happens if you sort sets of numbers before adding them?

They retain uniform distribution

What is central limit theorem?

When you combine numbers from several populations, the data becomes normally distributed regardless of the starting populations

What is regression to the mean?

When you combine samples, it is unlikely that very large or very small numbers are summed

How can you generate random numbers?

A seed from a computer clock, or atomic decay or thermal noise for 'true' random

What can you use random numbers for?

Simulations or bootstrapping

What is bootstrapping used for?

Avoids the assumption of normality by resampling data to get confidence intervals

How do you resample data?

Take some numbers from the data and find the mean, then repeat many times. The resampled means are now normally distributed around the original mean

What else can you resample apart from means?

Medians, although these may be sensibly asymmetrical around the mean

What happens if you bootstrap a normal distribution?

You should have confidence intervals similar to the original data

What is replacement?

You can sample with or without 'returning' numbers after choosing them

Should you replace?

Usually, especially with small datasets

What can you use random numbers for in simulations of human data?

Generating noise