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20 terms

science ch 12 EarthQuakes

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earthquake
a movement of trembling of the ground that is caused by a sudden release of energy when rocks along a fault move
elastic rebound
the sudden return of elastically deformed rock to its undeformed shape
focus
the location within Earth along a fault at which the first motion of an earthquake occurs
epicenter
the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's starting point
body wave
in geology, a seismic wave that travels through the body of a meduim
surface wave
travels along the surface of a body rather than through the middle
P wave
a wave that cause rock to move back-and-forth direction parallel
s wave
shear wave that causes particles of rock to move in a side-to-side direction
shadow zone
anarea on Earth's surface where no direct seismic waves from a particular earthquake can be detected
convergent boundary
plates move toward each other and collide while the denser plate subducts
divergent boundary
plates that move away from each other
continental boundary
two continental plates converge,diverge, or move horizontally in opposite direction
fault zone
a region of numerous closely spaced faults
magnitude
a measure of the strength of an earthquake
tsunasi
a giant ocean wave that forms after a volcanic eruption, submarine earthquake, or landslide
seismic waves
vibrations that travel outward in all directions from the focus through the surrounding rock
rayleigh waves
causes the ground to move with an elliptical, rolling motion
Richter scale
measures the ground motion of an earthquake
moment magnitude
measurement of earthquake strength based on the size of the area of the fault that moves
Mercalli scale
expresses intensity of an earthquake in Roman numerals from I to XII