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APUSH CH 11
Terms in this set (28)
A class of persons holding special rank and privileges, especially the hereditary nobility.
Small farmers, most of whom did not own slaves. Pioneered the southern wilderness, moving into undeveloped regions and building log cabins. After War of 1812, they moved down the southern Appalachians into new Gulf lands, first as herders and then as farmers.
Eli Whitney/Cotton Gin
A Connecticut inventor who invented the cotton gin in 1793. The machine efficiently removed seeds from cotton, increasing the demand for slave labor to keep up with this efficiency.
Example: Davis family. Farmers who were able to gain land, slaves, and social status in one generation in the South.
Describes slave holding states when slave labor and cotton production dominated Southern economy. "Antebellum Era"
Frederick Law Olmsted
A northerner and landscape architect who made several trips through the South in the 1850s as a journalist. Found that the few trains and stagecoaches available o travelers offered crude accommodations and kept their schedules poorly.
Unskilled laborers who owned no land and worked for others. Their property consisted of a few household items and some animals, usually pigs, that could feed themselves on open range. Landless included some immigrants, mostly Irish, who did dangerous work such as building railroads and digging ditches.
Generally descendants of men and women emancipated by their owners in the 1780s and 1790s. Usually did not own land and had to labor in someone else's fields among slaves. By law they could not own a gun, buy liquor, violate curfew, assemble outside of church, or vote.
Privileged offspring of wealthy planters, a result of extensive interracial sex. Often received good educations and financial backings from father.
Biological reproduction by partners of different racial categories.
As a group, able to enjoy superior housing, food, clothing, and luxuries. Most lived in comfortable farmhouses. Average planter was not a wealthy aristocrat but an aspiring farmer, usually a person of humble origins, with little formal education and bad manners.
A policy of treating subject people as if they were children, providing for their needs but not giving them rights.
A young woman of the American Old South's upper class, known for being quiet and polite and entertaining suitors.
A term for slavery, meaning that it was a way of life unique to the South exclusively.
Married Women's Property Act of 1839
Had not been intended to increase female independence. Instituted to protect families from the husband's indebtness during business panics and recessions, giving women some property rights.
Magazine devoted to the agricultural, commercial, and industrial progress of the American South. Helped convince many southerners to support secession from the Union.
This was a stereotype of slaves. This slave acted in front of whites as whites expected: shuffling, grinning, and head-scratching.
Style of African chants in which a phrase is followed by a responding phrase. This aspect of African culture fascinated whites.
Free black in Charleston who led a conspiracy in 1822 involving many of the prominent whites' most trusted slaves.
Son of an African woman who hated slavery and a free black who learned to read and write when he was young. Became a preacher with a reputation for eloquence among whites. Created a plan over the course of several years and eventually led a band of rebels from farm to farm in the predawn darkness of August 22, 1831. Severed limbs and crushed skulls with axes or killed victims with guns. Killed a total of 60 whites of all ages and both sexes. Eventually caught and then hanged.
Secret pathway for runaway blacks, aided by a small network of sympathetic citizens.
Required men to defend their honor through violence. Acceptable in the South through the 1850s.
Hinton Rowan Helper
Class-conscious nonslaveholder who denounced the slave system. He was convinced that slavery had impoverished many whites and destroyed the whole region. Wrote the Impending Crisis in 1857.
The Impending Crisis
Written in 1857 by Hinton R. Helper and published in NY. Claimed that slavery was hurting whites more than blacks.
A social theorist who published racial and slavery-based sociological theories in the antebellum era. He argued that "the Negro is but a grown up child" who needs the economic and social protections of slavery. He claimed that black slaves were in a much better situation than poor and freed blacks.
Expression used by Southern authors and orators before Civil War to indicate economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry internally and externally.
Era of Southern culture before the Civil War.
Term the North used to describe the slaveholding South and its schemes to gain more slave land.
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