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assemblage of al the populations of organisms living close enough together for potential interaction
competitive exclusion principle
the concept that populations of 2 species cant coexist in a community if their niches are nearly identical- one of them will outcompete & eventually eliminate the other
differentiation of niches that enables similar species to coexist in a community
disease-causing bacteria, viruses or protists that could be thought of as microscopic parasites
events such as storms, fire, floods, droughts, overgrazing or human activity that damage biological communities, remove organisms from them and alter the availability of resources
the disturbed area may be colonized by a variety of species, which are gradually replaced by a succession of other species
occurs where a disturbance has destroyed an existing community but left the soil intact
organism that makes organic food molecules from inorganic raw materials (plant, alga, or autotrophic bacterium)... support all others
consists of all the organisms in a community as well as the abiotic environment they interact with
the amount of solar energy converted to chemical energy (organic compounds) by an ecosystem's producers for a given area and during a given time period
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