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Bio Chapter 37

STUDY
PLAY
community
assemblage of al the populations of organisms living close enough together for potential interaction
species diversity
variety of different kinds of organisms that make up a community
trophic structure
feeding relationships among the various species making up the community
interspecific competition
two different species competing for the same resource
competitive exclusion principle
the concept that populations of 2 species cant coexist in a community if their niches are nearly identical- one of them will outcompete & eventually eliminate the other
niche
a species role in the community (sum total use of its biotic/abiotic resources in habitat)
resource partitioning
differentiation of niches that enables similar species to coexist in a community
predation
interaction between species in which one (the predator) kills and eats another (the prey)
predator
the species that kills & eats the prey
prey
the species killed & eaten by the predator
Batesian mimicry
palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful model
Müllerian mimicry
two unpalatable species that inhabit the same community mimic each other
keystone species
species that exerts strong control on community structure b/c of its niche
herbivore
animals that eat plants/algae
coevolution
series of reciprocal evolutionary adaptations in 2 species
symbiotic relationship
interaction between two or more species that live together in direct contact
parasitism
a parasite lives on or in its host and obtains its nourishment from the host
pathogens
disease-causing bacteria, viruses or protists that could be thought of as microscopic parasites
commensalism
one partner benefits w/o significantly affecting the other
mutualism
benefits both partners in the relationship
disturbance
events such as storms, fire, floods, droughts, overgrazing or human activity that damage biological communities, remove organisms from them and alter the availability of resources
ecological succession
the disturbed area may be colonized by a variety of species, which are gradually replaced by a succession of other species
primary succession
when ecological succession begins in a virtually lifeless area with no soil
secondary succession
occurs where a disturbance has destroyed an existing community but left the soil intact
food chain
the sequence of food transfer up the trophic levels
producers
organism that makes organic food molecules from inorganic raw materials (plant, alga, or autotrophic bacterium)... support all others
consumers
organism that obtains food by eating plants/eating animals that have eaten plants
decomposers/detritovores
organism that derives its energy from organic wastes and dead organisms
decomposition
breakdown of organic materials to inorganic materials
food web
a network of interconnecting food chains
ecosystem
consists of all the organisms in a community as well as the abiotic environment they interact with
energy flow
the passage of energy through the components of the ecosystem
chemical cycling
the transfer of materials within the ecosystem
biomass
the mass of living organic material in an ecosystem
primary production
the amount of solar energy converted to chemical energy (organic compounds) by an ecosystem's producers for a given area and during a given time period
abiotic reservoir
the part of an ecosystem where a chemical accumulates or is stockpiled outside of living organisms