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Psychology: Loftus and Palmer
A cognitive set study.
Terms in this set (33)
when was the study conducted?
What were they examining?
whether the phrasing of a question influences speed estimates.
How many experiments were there?
What was the design of experiment 1?
A lab experiment using between-participants design. (different verb for each group)
What was the independent variable of exp 1?
The verb used (smashed, hit, bumped)
What was the dependent variable of exp 1?
The speed estimate the participants gave.
How many participants were used?
What apparatus materials did they use?
7 films (5-30 seconds long)
How were the Participants questioned?
Using a questionnaire.
What was the procedure of experiment 1?
1.Films presented in differing orders to each group.
2. Questionnaire which included the critical question "About how fast were the cars going when they [hit] each other?"
What were the results of experiment 1?
Highest mean speed estimate for smashed (40.8 mph), lowest for contacted (31.8)
What was the conclusion of experiment 1?
The phrasing of the sentence affects the speed estimate.
What was the design of experiment 2?
A lab experiment with a between participant design.
What was the independent variable of exp 2?
They were the critical question.
What was the dependent variable of exp 2?
Was whether participants recall seeing broken glass.
How many participants were there?
What apparatus/materials were used?
A 1 minute long film. The crash lasted 4 seconds.
How were the Participants in experiment 2 questioned?
Using a questionnaire.
What was the procedure of experiment 2?
1. The film of the crash was presented.
2. the questionnaire was completed which included the critical speed question.
3. 1 week later, participants were asked 10 questions. a randomly placed critical question was asked "did you see any broken glass".
What were the results of experiment 2?
Mean speed estimate more for smashed 10.46 mph than hit whihc was 8mph.
What was the conclusion of experiment 2?
The phrasing of a question influences recall.
what were the controls for the whole experiment?
The study was well controlled. eg. one group of pp's were not asked the critical broken glass question.
What is a reason for good control of variables?
Because the experiment was conducted in a lab.
how could you increase ecological validity?
By making the experiment a field experiment.
was the data qualitative or quantitive?
Quantitive. Eg. Estimates of car speeds, and perception of broken glass.
How ecologically valid was the experiment?
1.Very low because it was conducted in an laboratory.
2.Participants knew they were taking part in an experiment.
3. In real life there would be an element of surprise, so they might not be paying attention.
4. there would be an increase of emotion.
5. They might not be asked q's till sometime later.
6. they key have the opportunity to discuss what you saw with other people.
Order effects caused by a random sequence of presentation of films to each guy,
Is the experiment representative of the population?
No. The participants were all students.
Was to investigate how information supplied after an event, influences a witnesses memory for that event.
Phrasing of a question influences recall.
two types info go into memory: one from perception of original event
one from external information supplied after (leading question)
They merge overtime, so we only experience one memory.
The verb labels the memory.
1. Participants were all students
2. Several ways why the the students may not be representative of the general population (area, age, driving experience, educational experience - may be used to paying attention and being tested)
Has many applications: Police questioning witnesses
Teachers asking/setting questions
Evaluating other issues
1. Some groups may find it easier to estimate speed (taxi drivers, police officers)
2. The driver of the car is not mentioned in the article - what if they had been visible as an elderly woman or a young man
3. Wat if the car was a Porsche or a Smart Car
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