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FP Test One
Terms in this set (48)
Sylvester is hired by the defense to help select jurors who would be less likely to convict. This is an example of the following role played by psychologists in the legal system:
The roles of psychologists and their influence in the legal system created which positive changes?
Judges have to articulate more clearly what their decisions are based on.
The Daubert trilogy of cases impacts trial courts by:
putting the burden of decisions about allowing expert testimony on trial judges.
The knowledge and skills of clinical psychologists might be relevant for the legal system in which one of these cases?
When assessing a mentally ill defendant for potential risk of violence.
Amicus curiae briefs:
provide a way to influence the court when expert testimony is not allowed.
The basis of the adversarial system in law is that:
truth will emerge as a result of contest between opposing sides.
Brandeis's brief in Muller v Oregon (1908) was a milestone in the development of the psychology and law union because it:
opened the door for U.S. courts to use social scientific evidence.
Sam is a cognitive psychologist. What aspect of the legal process might he provide assistance with to the court?
Clarifying whether jurors understand the instructions for deliberating a verdict.
The way Daubert trilogy affected the legal system includes all of the following EXCEPT:
superior courts are more likely to question trial judges' decisions about allowing expert testimony.
The knowledge and skills of developmental psychologists might be relevant for the legal system in which one of these cases?
When evaluating the state of mind of a teenager who brought guns to school.
A psychologist testifying in court feels it is his responsibility to correctly and clearly present scientific findings, even if this may lead to an unfair verdict by the jury. According to Saks (1990), such an expert fulfills the role of:
_____ can be described as an effort to figure out how the world works, whereas _____ provides a system for meting out just desserts.
According to the text, the term gatekeeper refers to:
the assessment of scientific validity of testimony before allowing it in trial.
According to the summary "Neuroscience in the Courtroom," recent advances in neuroscience have:
raised important questions about free will and personal responsibility.
According to the text, the goal of psychology is to ____, whereas the goal of the legal system is to _____.
emphasize the characteristics of groups; emphasize individual cases
Shane was involved in a highly charged court case. His job was to provide an overview of research to assist the jury in making a well-informed decision regarding the suspect, in particular, in regard to the suspect's confession. Shane was called in to serve in what capacity?
When a confession exists, juries _____ come back with a conviction.
According to the textbook, police prefer a confession because:
confessions save time.
According to studies, which form of evidence is most incriminating (likely to lead to conviction)?
Utilization of a team approach to interrogation is often referred to as:
good cop-bad cop approach.
As a result of a long, drawn out interrogation process, Kathryn confessed to a crime knowing that she did not commit it. This type of confession is called an:
Hugo is interrogated alone and told repeatedly that his guilt is corroborated by both physical evidence and eyewitness accounts. This approach most likely embodies the following strategy used by police during Hugo's interrogation:
social isolation and certainty of guilt.
Beginning in the 1960s, confessions have been generally ruled inadmissible if they resulted from the following forms of coercion EXCEPT:
vague promises of leniency at sentencing.
Miranda rights are intended to notify the suspect of the following rights EXCEPT for the right to:
remain in custody.
All of the following are possible explanations for waiving the Miranda rights, EXCEPT:
police are very careful in explaining to suspects their rights.
All of the following is true about the use of torture in interrogations, EXCEPT:
there is clear research evidence that torture leads to extracting useful information.
Police may use a variety of evidence ploys during interrogation. This is possible because:
police can lie during interrogation.
Jeremy purposely confessed to a crime he did not commit to cover for his wife. This type of confession is referred to as an:
False confessions may occur as a result of:
All of these may lead to false confessions.
Research in the field of social psychology has discovered that people tend to _____ the impact of situational forces, and this process is responsible for believing that suspects in police custody would _____ to the crime they did not commit.
disregard; not confess
The comparison question test (CQT) posits that guilty individuals react more strongly to _____ questions, whereas innocent individuals react more strongly to _____ questions.
Credibility assessment is also referred to as:
The polygraph may be used as a _____ tactic to evoke _____.
coercive; a confession.
Techniques such as biting the tongue, pressing the toes to the floor, or counting backwards are all examples of:
countermeasures to polygraph testing.
Elena was suspected of committing a fraud. Investigators asked her to tell her story in reverse. This promising lie-detection technique is based on the idea that narrating backwards:
increases cognitive load.
According to research completed by Bond and DePaulo (2006), people's ability to distinguish lies has a _____ rate of accuracy, and efforts to improve people's ability to discern lies have _____.
barely above chance; not been very successful
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
The vast majority of people never tell lies.
The guilty knowledge test (GKT) uses a multiple-choice question format. When answers are provided, _____ is usually _____.
the first choice; thrown out
The _____ shows a video image of the brain in action.
According to a study conducted by Honts, Raskin, and Kircher (1994), the use of countermeasures _____ the detection of guilty suspects by 50%, and the examiners _____ able to tell that the suspects were manipulating their own arousal patterns.
reduced; were not.
The rates of accuracy of the polygraph have been calculated using controlled lab studies and mock crimes. These rates are likely to be somewhat inflated for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
the polygraph machines used in these studies are outdated.
When police detectives were assessed as to their ability to detect lies, according to the text, they were _____ likely to correctly assess the truthfulness of videotaped statements compared with college students.
The technique that uses systematic analysis of written statements to assess the credibility of statements related to a particular event is called:
criteria-based content analysis (CBCA).
The ability of humans to maintain relatively harmonious social relationships is facilitated by our capacity to _____ the truth.
bend and reshape
Lying can best be described as:
According to Pamela Myers, most of us can detect lies about _______ of the time.
In the movie "Forgotten Sins," Dr. Ofshe demonstrated that Matt was _________.
adept at self-hypnosis and was creating memories based on his daughters' suggestions.
This research method represents the clearest way to show a cause and effect relationship:
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