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A small religious group that has broken away from some larger mainstream church, often claiming superior or exclusive possession of religious truth


Those who seek to excite or persuade the public on some issue


The capacity to pass readily from one social or economic condition to another


The smaller group at the top of a society or institution, usually possessing wealth, power, or special privileges


A person who works under a master to acquire instruction in a trade or profession


Buying land or anything else in the hope of profiting by an expected rise in price


In religion, a movement of renewed enthusiasm and commitment, often accompanied by special meetings or evangelical activity


Belonging to the worldly sphere rather than to the specifically sacred or churchly


Corruption of a German word used as a term for German immigrants in Pennsylvania


Ethnic group that had already relocated once before immigrating to America and settling largely on the Western forntier of the middle and southern colonies

Paxton boys

Rebellious movement of frontiersmen in the southern colonies that included future President Andrew Jackson

Jayle Birds

Popular term for convicted criminals dumped on colonies by British authorities

Praying Towns

Term for New England settlements where Indians from various tribes were gathered to be Christianized


A once-despised profession that rose in prestige after 1750 because its practitioners defended colonial rights

Triangular Trade

Small but profitable trade route that linked New England, Africa, and West Indies


Popular colonial centers of recreation, gossip, and political debate

Established Churches

Term for tax-supported condition of Congregational and Anglican churches, but not of Baptists, Quakers, and Roman Catholics

Great Awakening

Spectacular, emotional religious revival of the 1730s and 1740s

New Light

Ministers who supported the Great Awakening against the "old light" clergy who rejected it


Institutions that were founded in greater numbers as a result of the Great Awakening, although a few had been founded earlier


Leading city of the colonies; home of Benjamin Franklin


Largest non-English group in the colonies

Paxton Boys and Regulators

Scots-Irish frontiersmen who protested against colonial elites of Pennsylvania and North Carolina

Patrick Henry

Eloquent lawyer-orator who argued in defense of colonial rights

Molasses Act

Attempt by British authorities to squelch colonial trade with French West Indies

Anglican Church

Established religion in southern colonies and New York; weakened by lackadaisical clergy and too-close ties with British crown

Jonathan Edwards

Brilliant New England theologian who instigated the Great Awakening

George Whitefield

Itinerant British evangelist who spread the Great Awakening throughout the colonies

Phillis Wheatley

Former slave who became a poet at an early age

Benjamin Franklin

Author, scientist, printer; "the first civilized American"

John Peter Zenger

Colonial printer whose case helped begin freedom of the press


Dominant religious group in colonial Pennsylvania, criticized by others for their attitudes toward Indians


Non-established religious group that benefited from the Great Awakening

John Singleton Copley

Colonial painter who studied and worked in Britain

Zenger Case

The case that established the precedent that true statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel


The upper house of colonial legislature, appointed by the crown or the proprietor

Poor Richard's Almanack

Benjamin Franklin's highly popular collection of information, parables, and advice

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