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AP US Chapter 5

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Sect
A small religious group that has broken away from some larger mainstream church, often claiming superior or exclusive possession of religious truth
Agitators
Those who seek to excite or persuade the public on some issue
Mobility
The capacity to pass readily from one social or economic condition to another
Elite
The smaller group at the top of a society or institution, usually possessing wealth, power, or special privileges
Apprentice
A person who works under a master to acquire instruction in a trade or profession
Speculation
Buying land or anything else in the hope of profiting by an expected rise in price
Revival
In religion, a movement of renewed enthusiasm and commitment, often accompanied by special meetings or evangelical activity
Secular
Belonging to the worldly sphere rather than to the specifically sacred or churchly
Dutch
Corruption of a German word used as a term for German immigrants in Pennsylvania
Scots-Irish
Ethnic group that had already relocated once before immigrating to America and settling largely on the Western forntier of the middle and southern colonies
Paxton boys
Rebellious movement of frontiersmen in the southern colonies that included future President Andrew Jackson
Jayle Birds
Popular term for convicted criminals dumped on colonies by British authorities
Praying Towns
Term for New England settlements where Indians from various tribes were gathered to be Christianized
Lawyers
A once-despised profession that rose in prestige after 1750 because its practitioners defended colonial rights
Triangular Trade
Small but profitable trade route that linked New England, Africa, and West Indies
Taverns
Popular colonial centers of recreation, gossip, and political debate
Established Churches
Term for tax-supported condition of Congregational and Anglican churches, but not of Baptists, Quakers, and Roman Catholics
Great Awakening
Spectacular, emotional religious revival of the 1730s and 1740s
New Light
Ministers who supported the Great Awakening against the "old light" clergy who rejected it
Colleges
Institutions that were founded in greater numbers as a result of the Great Awakening, although a few had been founded earlier
Philadelphia
Leading city of the colonies; home of Benjamin Franklin
African-Americans
Largest non-English group in the colonies
Paxton Boys and Regulators
Scots-Irish frontiersmen who protested against colonial elites of Pennsylvania and North Carolina
Patrick Henry
Eloquent lawyer-orator who argued in defense of colonial rights
Molasses Act
Attempt by British authorities to squelch colonial trade with French West Indies
Anglican Church
Established religion in southern colonies and New York; weakened by lackadaisical clergy and too-close ties with British crown
Jonathan Edwards
Brilliant New England theologian who instigated the Great Awakening
George Whitefield
Itinerant British evangelist who spread the Great Awakening throughout the colonies
Phillis Wheatley
Former slave who became a poet at an early age
Benjamin Franklin
Author, scientist, printer; "the first civilized American"
John Peter Zenger
Colonial printer whose case helped begin freedom of the press
Quakers
Dominant religious group in colonial Pennsylvania, criticized by others for their attitudes toward Indians
Baptists
Non-established religious group that benefited from the Great Awakening
John Singleton Copley
Colonial painter who studied and worked in Britain
Zenger Case
The case that established the precedent that true statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel
Council
The upper house of colonial legislature, appointed by the crown or the proprietor
Poor Richard's Almanack
Benjamin Franklin's highly popular collection of information, parables, and advice