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edexcel a level physics electricity
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Terms in this set (48)
kirchoff's 1st law
currents entering = currents leaving
kirchoff's 2nd law
sum of emf =sum of pd in a closed loop
IV graph is a curve
doesn't follow ohms law, as it isn't directly preportional
lost volts equation
E=V+IR
difference in resistance between conductors and insulators
insulator: higher resistivity as it is harder (not possible) for an electric current to pass through
kirchoff's second law linked to conservation
conservation of energy: all energy has to come from somewhere as it cannot be created of destroyed
kirchoff's first law linked to conservation
charge is conserved, this is a law of conservation
newtons first law
an object will continue going in a straight line tag a constant velocity unless acted upon by a resultant force
Find number of charge carriers per m of wire (area=A, charge carrier density=n)
A x n
number charge carriers passing a point per second (area=A, charge carrier density=n, at speed=v)
v x A x n
charge passing along the wire per second (area=A, charge carrier density=n, at speed=v, with charge=q)
v x A x n x q
Vout=
Vsupply x l/L
potentiometer
potential divider that allows a variable voltage from 0 to Vsupply.
potentiometer equation
Rout/Rtotal = Vout/Vtotal
temperature dependant resistor
Thermistor. An electric component that indicates temperature by the value of its resistance
nct
resistance decreases as temperature rises
how does ntc work
temp increase, causes increase conduction electrons released, so higher current flow.
ptc
resistance increases as temperature increases
how does ptc work
as temp increases, lattice ions vibrate more, so more electron collisions with lattice ions. (also happens in ntc)
LDR
resistance decreases as light intensity increases. because energy is absorbed, releasing more conduction electrons.
load resistance
resistance of the external circuit
internal resistance
resistance of the cell. due to work done by electrons passing through the cell.
emf
energy gained per coulomb of charge passing through the supply
lost volts
energy transferred per coloumb in moving through the cell. (due to internal resistance)
terminal pd
pd between the cell terminals (energy transferred per coulomb of charge to the load resistance)
emf=
terminal pd + lost volts
% efficiency
useful energy/total energy in x 100
number of charged particles in a set charge
total charge/charge of particle
resistance
unit: Ohms
resistance series
R1 +R2 +...=Rtotal
resistance parallel
1/R1 +1/R2 +...=1/Rtotal
current
rate of flow of charge. unit: amps or C/second
current series
all same
current parallel
current into a junction=current out of a junction
potential difference
energy transferred between 2 points in a circuit per unit charge. unit: volt or joule/coulomb
pd series
V1+V2+...=Vt
pd parallel
V1=V2=Vt
IV graph of a resistor
directly proportional. obeys ohms law. ohmic resistor.
IV graph of a light bulb
inversely proportional. non-ohmic conductor. resistance increases as filament heats.
IV graph of a diode
only allows current in one direction. current only flows once a certain voltage is applied.
factors affecting the resistance of a resistor
length, material, cross sectional, area
resistivity
insindric property of a material. ohm meters
drift velocity
average speed of a particle travels along a conductor.
a resistor is a conductor
in a circuit it lets current flow. resists the flow of charge, so reduces current
voltmeter
high resistance
ammeter
negligible resistance
multimeter as an ohmmeter
reduces heating so minimises errors as uses a very small current. (no battery/external circuit required)
electrical energy=
IVT
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