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Human-Resource Management (HRM)

Activities undertaken to attract, develop, and maintain an effective workforce within an organization

Human Capital

The economic value of the knowledge, experience, skills, and capabilities of employees

International Human-Resource Management (IHRM)

A subfield of human-resource management that addresses the complexity that results from recruiting, selecting, developing, and maintaining a diverse workforce on a global scale


The hiring or promoting of applicants based on criteria that are not job relevant

Affirmative Action

A policy that requires employers to take positive steps to guarantee equal employment opportunities for people within protected groups

Contingent Workers

People who work for an organization, but not on a permanent or full-time basis, including temporary placements, contracted professionals, and leased employees

Contingent Professionals

People, mostly retirees, who bring needed experties


Using computers and telecommunications equipment to perform work from home or another remote location


Intentionally reducing the company's workforce to the point where the number of employees is deemed to be right for the company's current situation

Matching Model

An employee selection approach in which the organization and the applicant attempt to match each other's needs, interests, and values

Human-Resource Planning

The forecasting of human-resource needs and the projected matching of individuals with expected job vacancies


The activities or practices that define the desired characteristics of applicants for specific jobs

Job Analysis

The systematic process of gathering and interpreting information about the essential duties, tasks, and responsibilities of a job

Job Description

A concise summary of the specific tasks and responsibilities of a particular job

Job Specification

An outline of the knowledge, skills, education, and physical abilities needed to adequately perform a job

Realistic Job Preview

A recruiting approach that gives applicants all pertinent and realistic information about the job and the organization


The process of determining the skills, abilities, and other attributes a person needs to perform a particular job

Application Form

A device for collecting information about an applicant's education, previous job experience, and other background characteristics

Employment Test

A written or computer-based test designed to measure a particular attribute such as intelligence or aptitude

Assessment Center

A technique for selecting individuals with high managerial potential based on their performance on a series of simulated managerial tasks

On-The-Job Training (OJT)

A type of training in which an experienced employee "adopts" a new employee to teach him or her how to perform job duties

Corporate University

An in-house training and education facility that offers broad-based learning opportunities for employees


When an experienced employee guides and supports a less-experienced employee


A method of directing, instructing, and training a person with the goal of developing specific management skills

Performance Appraisal

The process of observing and evaluating an employee's performance, recording the assessment, and providing feedback to the employee

360-Degree Feedback

A process that uses multiple raters, including self-rating, to appraise employee performance and guide development


Placing an employee into a class or category based on one or a few traits or characteristics

Halo Effect

A type of rating error that occurs when an employee receives the same rating on all dimensions regardless of his or her performance on individual ones

Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)

A rating technique that relates an employee's performance to specific job-related incidents


Monetary payments (wages, salaries) and nonmonetary goods and commodities (benefits, vacations) used to reward employees

Job Evaluation

The process of determining the value of jobs within an organization through an examination of job content

Wage and Salary Surveys

Surveys that show what other organizations pay incumbents in jobs that match a sample of "key" jobs selected by the organization

Pay for Performance

Incentive pay that ties at least part of compensation to employee effort and performance

Exit Interview

An interview conducted with departing employees to determine the reasons for their termination


All the ways in which employees differ

Managing Diversity

Creating a climate in which the potential advantages of diversity for organizational or group performance are maximized while the potential disadvantages are minimized


The tendency to view people who are different as being deficient


When someone acts out their prejudicial attitudes toward people who are the targets of their prejudice

Stereotyping (2nd definition)

Associating a rigid, exaggerated, and irrational belief with a particular group of people

Stereotype Threat

A psychological experience of a person who, usually engaged in a task, is aware of a stereotype about his or her identity group that suggests he or she will not perform well on that task


The belief that one's own group or subculture is inherently superior to other groups or cultures

Glass Ceiling

Invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from top management positions


Higher-ranking organizational member who is committed to providing upward mobility and support to a protege's professional career

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