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43 terms

Chapter 9

STUDY
PLAY
Human-Resource Management (HRM)
Activities undertaken to attract, develop, and maintain an effective workforce within an organization
Human Capital
The economic value of the knowledge, experience, skills, and capabilities of employees
International Human-Resource Management (IHRM)
A subfield of human-resource management that addresses the complexity that results from recruiting, selecting, developing, and maintaining a diverse workforce on a global scale
Discrimination
The hiring or promoting of applicants based on criteria that are not job relevant
Affirmative Action
A policy that requires employers to take positive steps to guarantee equal employment opportunities for people within protected groups
Contingent Workers
People who work for an organization, but not on a permanent or full-time basis, including temporary placements, contracted professionals, and leased employees
Contingent Professionals
People, mostly retirees, who bring needed experties
Telecommuting
Using computers and telecommunications equipment to perform work from home or another remote location
Rightsizing
Intentionally reducing the company's workforce to the point where the number of employees is deemed to be right for the company's current situation
Matching Model
An employee selection approach in which the organization and the applicant attempt to match each other's needs, interests, and values
Human-Resource Planning
The forecasting of human-resource needs and the projected matching of individuals with expected job vacancies
Recruiting
The activities or practices that define the desired characteristics of applicants for specific jobs
Job Analysis
The systematic process of gathering and interpreting information about the essential duties, tasks, and responsibilities of a job
Job Description
A concise summary of the specific tasks and responsibilities of a particular job
Job Specification
An outline of the knowledge, skills, education, and physical abilities needed to adequately perform a job
Realistic Job Preview
A recruiting approach that gives applicants all pertinent and realistic information about the job and the organization
Selection
The process of determining the skills, abilities, and other attributes a person needs to perform a particular job
Application Form
A device for collecting information about an applicant's education, previous job experience, and other background characteristics
Employment Test
A written or computer-based test designed to measure a particular attribute such as intelligence or aptitude
Assessment Center
A technique for selecting individuals with high managerial potential based on their performance on a series of simulated managerial tasks
On-The-Job Training (OJT)
A type of training in which an experienced employee "adopts" a new employee to teach him or her how to perform job duties
Corporate University
An in-house training and education facility that offers broad-based learning opportunities for employees
Mentoring
When an experienced employee guides and supports a less-experienced employee
Coaching
A method of directing, instructing, and training a person with the goal of developing specific management skills
Performance Appraisal
The process of observing and evaluating an employee's performance, recording the assessment, and providing feedback to the employee
360-Degree Feedback
A process that uses multiple raters, including self-rating, to appraise employee performance and guide development
Stereotyping
Placing an employee into a class or category based on one or a few traits or characteristics
Halo Effect
A type of rating error that occurs when an employee receives the same rating on all dimensions regardless of his or her performance on individual ones
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)
A rating technique that relates an employee's performance to specific job-related incidents
Compensation
Monetary payments (wages, salaries) and nonmonetary goods and commodities (benefits, vacations) used to reward employees
Job Evaluation
The process of determining the value of jobs within an organization through an examination of job content
Wage and Salary Surveys
Surveys that show what other organizations pay incumbents in jobs that match a sample of "key" jobs selected by the organization
Pay for Performance
Incentive pay that ties at least part of compensation to employee effort and performance
Exit Interview
An interview conducted with departing employees to determine the reasons for their termination
Diversity
All the ways in which employees differ
Managing Diversity
Creating a climate in which the potential advantages of diversity for organizational or group performance are maximized while the potential disadvantages are minimized
Prejudice
The tendency to view people who are different as being deficient
Discrimination
When someone acts out their prejudicial attitudes toward people who are the targets of their prejudice
Stereotyping (2nd definition)
Associating a rigid, exaggerated, and irrational belief with a particular group of people
Stereotype Threat
A psychological experience of a person who, usually engaged in a task, is aware of a stereotype about his or her identity group that suggests he or she will not perform well on that task
Ethnocentrism
The belief that one's own group or subculture is inherently superior to other groups or cultures
Glass Ceiling
Invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from top management positions
Mentor
Higher-ranking organizational member who is committed to providing upward mobility and support to a protege's professional career