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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Global final and regents (part 1)
Terms in this set (50)
age of absolutism
period in European history when nations were governed (ruled) by absolute monarchs
were kings who had total control over the nations that they ruled
what did absolute monarchs believe in?
idea that kings received their power to rule directly from God
Centralized political control
absolute monarchs did not share their power with anyone else
What did absolute monarchs believe? What did they do?
They believed they had unlimited power, they made laws without the consent of their people
Peter the Great
absolute monarch of Russia. He also westernized Russia (which means he imitated the customs and traditions of countries in Western Europe in order to strengthen his nation)
absolute monarch of France
absolute monarch of Spain
absolute monarch of England
Suleiman the Magnificent
Absolute monarch of the Ottoman Empire
Important absolute monarchs
Louis XIV, Philip II, Henry VIII, and Suleiman the Magnificent
Why are Louis XIV, Philip II, Henry VIII, and Suleiman the Magnificent so important?
they have all helped expand the territory of their nations by taking over neighboring lands
Key people of the Scientific Revolution
Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Descartes, Sir Isaac Newton, and Johannes Kepler
astronomer who developed the Heliocentric theory
idea that the planets revolve around the sun
Astronomer who proved that Copernicus was correct. He was put on trial by the Catholic Church because his ideas went against its teachings
Sir Isaac Newton
Mathematician and astronomer who developed calculus and the theory of gravity
Astronomer who helped discover how planets move
Mathematician, scientist, and philosopher
What did the new ideas of the Scientific Revolution lead to?
It directly lead to the Enlightenment
period in European history when logic was used to understand and improve society. "Age of Reason"
What did the Enlightenment philosophers believe?
-They believed that society could be improved by using reason and natural law.
-Governments receive their authority from the people and not from God.
-Believed in democracy (a government where the people have a say)
What did the Scientific revolution and the Enlightenment both encourage?
the spread of new ideas and the use of reason
Key people of the Enlightenment
John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau
Believed that all people have natural rights. Also said people have the right to overthrow governments that fail to protect these rights
Life, liberty, and property
Baron de Montesquieu
believed power in government should be divided into three branches (legislative, executive, and judicial) so that there is a separation of powers and a system of checks and balances
believed that everyone is entitled to freedom of speech and religion
believed that society is a social contract
an agreement in which all people agree to work for the common good of society
what did the enlightenment help cause?
it helped cause political revolutions
an event in which people of a country overthrow an existing government and create a new government
English revolution ("Glorious revolution")
event in which the people of England successfully limited the power of their monarchs
what was one key effect of the English revolution?
England's government became a limited (or constitutional) monarchy
limited (or constitutional) monarchy
form of government in which the power of monarchs is limited by written laws
what are the names of the laws that limited the power of the English king?
The Magna Carta, The Petition of Right, The English Bill of Rights, and Habeas Corpus
event in which the people of France overthrew their king (Louis XVI) and fought for more rights
(1) What caused the French revolution?
French society was divided into three social classes. The Third estate (peasants) were angry because they had few rights and had to pay the highest taxes
(2) What caused the French revolution?
People of France believed the absolute monarchs abused their power and denied the rights of the people
(3) What caused the French revolution?
France was in an economic crisis due to the king spending too much money. This put France in debt.
What were the two key events of the French Revolution?
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Reign of Terror
Declaration of the rights of Man
document written during the French Revolution that gave equal rights to the men of France and created a fair system of taxation
Reign of Terror
event where the leaders of the French Revolution executed thousands of people that they believed were loyal to the king
were the radical group leading the Reign of Terror led by Robespierre
King Louis XVI
executed by Robespierre and the Jacobins
ruler who came to power at the end of the French Revolution
What did Napoleon do?
He expanded French territory by conquering neighboring lands in Europe. This resulted in nationalism
What was Napoleon's huge mistake?
He was defeated in 1812 because he invaded Russia during the winter and the freezing climate killed thousands of his soldiers
Effect of the French Revolution
middle class gained more rights and power
Latin changed as it merged with Germanic languages and Roman populations, which led Medieval Europe to have a...
Which was NOT a belief of Voltaire?
How did the movement of people hinder European unity during the Middle Ages?
What according to Burke, did the French do when they overthrew their monarchy? What was their attitude toward the past?
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