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Climate and Biomes
Terms in this set (38)
Short-term properties in Earth's inner atmosphere (the troposphere) at a particular time and place. Describes using measurements of atmospheric pressure, precipitation, temperature, wind speed, humidity, and the location of air mass and fronts. Hours to days.
A region's general pattern of weather over a long period of time. It is mainly determined by average temperature and average precipitation. Over a long period of time (30-1,000,000 years).
circulates, Air circulation, Ocean currents
Temperature and precipitation patterns are determined by the way air ___________. _________ _____________ in the lower atmosphere is caused by uneven heating from the earth's sun, rotation of the earth on its axis, and properties of air, water, and land. ___________ _____________ are created from prevailing winds and the Earth's rotation and from the redistribution of heat from the Sun.
Uneven, Seasonal changes, axis, variations
5 factors that determine global air circulation: ___________ heating of the Earth's surface (air is heated more at the equator than the poles). __________ ____________ in temperature and precipitation (result from the tilted axis and creates opposite seasons in northern and southern hemispheres). Rotation of Earth on its ______ (air masses rotate slower at the poles). Long-term _____________ in the amount of solar energy striking the Earth. (caused by planetary shifts). Properties of air and water. (convection cells that transport air and water.
The causes of air currents plus differences in water __________ create warm and cold ocean __________.
redistributing, vegetation, deserts, nutrients
These currents, driven by winds and Earth's rotation, _______________ heat from the sun, influencing climate and ___________. If currents stopped flowing, there would be _________ in the tropics and thick ice sheets over Europe, Siberia, and Canada. Currents also mix ocean waters and distribute _____________ and dissolved oxygen to aquatic organisms.
Upwellings, surface, bottom
Process in which winds push _____________ water away from the land, replacing it with cold nutrient-rich ____________ water. Brings vital nutrients for aquatic life toward the surface.
Western winds are weakened and are unable to produce upwellings. Causes sharp declines in fish populations. Can trigger extreme weather changes over tho-thirds of the globe. Causes drought in Australia and flooding in South America. Warm water is reversed to South America. a warm ocean current that flows along the equator from the date line and south off the coast of Ecuador at Christmas time
La Nina, cooling
The ____________ counterpart of El Nino. It causes more hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean and cold winters in Canada and the United States as well as warm dry winter in the southern U.S. long-term weather patterns associated with changing global winds and ocean temperatures in the Pacific Ocean (often resulting in cooler, wetter weather).
Greenhouse gases, greenhouse effect
__________ _____________ help determine climate. ex: water vapor (H20), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N20), and chlorofluorocarbons. Natural __________ ____________: Earth's surface absorbs solar energy and transforms it to longer wavelength infrared radiation.
Human activities such as burning fossil fuels, clearing forests, and crowing crops release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Raise sea levels and affect plant and animal life. It is called _____________ ____________.
Limits the amount of UV radiation from the sun. Chlorofluorocarbons change the rate at which oxygen is converted.
The convection currents that cycle between the equator and 30 degrees N & S. Warm air rises from the equator and loses its moisture as rain. It then falls back to the Earth at 30 degrees as dry, cool air.
Causes moving air and water to turn left in the southern hemisphere and turn right in the northern hemisphere due to Earth's rotation
Often called the boreal forest, this biome contain coniferous forests, cold winters, low precipitation and nutrient level. [i.e. Russia, North America, Europe]
Mild to moderate temperatures, lots of rainfall, redwoods, Douglas firs, and western cedars, with low diversity, [i.e California, Oregon, Washington and Canada, Western New Zealand
A biome characterized by hot, dry summers, and mild, rainy winters. 12 month growing season, adapted well to fires and droughts [i.e. California, Australia, South America
high productivity, rapid decomposition, lots of rainfall, nutrient poor soil, close to the equator, [i.e Central/ South America, Tropical islands, Africa, Southeast Asia and Northern Australia]
warm with distinct wet and dry seasons, dominated by grasses and few trees, think of the Lion King landscape [ie Africa, South America, Southern Asia, Central America]
microclimates, Rain shadow effect
Topographic feature can cause ________________ (climates that differ from the general climate of the region). The ______________ _____________ ________________ is when moist air reaches a mountain range cools, causing precipitation. The drier land mass travels to the eastern side of the mountains, causing the land to become more arid and results in deserts.
Different communities sharing a similar climate and species are called __________.
Driest places on earth; evaporation exceeds precipitation. Widely scattered vegetation and receive very little rain. (sometimes no vegetation) Rapid temperature changes due to lack of moisture. Sand and hard rock particles.
Three types of deserts: 1._____________ desert. Temperature usually high year round and there is little rain. Driest places on earth with few plants and hard wind-blown surface called pavement. 2._____________ desert. Daytime temperatures are high in summer and low in winter and has more precipitation then the latter. Contains widely dispersed drought-resistant shrubs, cacti, and other succulents. Animals are adapted to lack of water. 3.__________ desert. Winters are cold, summers are warm or hot and precipitation is low. Can be caused to due rain shadow effect.
Succulents, sharp spines, Deep roots
Physical Adaptations to Surviving Heat: _____________; thick fleshy stems and leaves that store water. __________ __________; keep animal from eating plant for water. ________ ___________; to spread just under the surface to obtain rain water as much as possible.
Desert animals have ____________ skin to keep in moisture and most are nocturnal.
Considered a cold grassland, northern arctic, little precipitation, ____________ (deeper layers of the soil that are always frozen) and thin topsoil that is very moist and full of bogs.
____________ Tundra. Occurs above the limit of tree growth but below the permanent snow line on high mountains. The vegetation is similar to the arctic tundra. There is no permafrost layer and there is more sunlight. Has mosses and lichens, plants with wide, shallow roots. Wolves arctic foxes, caribou, etc.
Temperate Grasslands, Prairie, Steppe
______________ ______________: Cover large areas of continents (usually between deserts and forests). Moderate rainfall, but too little for trees. _________- long grass. ___________- short grass. Grasses and wildflowers. Roots from dense layers that survive fires from lightning. Farmland destroys the fertile soil. Grazing too.
Tropical (grassland) biome dominated by grasses, shrubs and small trees. Rain falls during the west season, where plants can grow. Plants must survive long period without rain.
farming and overgrazing
Threats to grassland.
Temperate shrubland, found primarily in California, near the sea; nice climate. Prone to fires in the dry season.
Located near the equator, help regulate world climate. Important to nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen cycles. Holds earth's biodiversity. Humid, constant warm temperature, sunlight year round. Annual rainfall is 200 to 450 cm of rainfall. Nutrient rich plants but poor nutrient-rich soil. Decomposers break down materials quickly and plants quickly absorb those nutrients.
Emergent, Canopy, Canopy, Understory
Layers of the Rainforest (in order) (4): _______________ Layer: emerging, tallest trees. Upper ______________, Lower ____________, ____________
Can be split in upper or lower in the rainforest. Trees absorb the most light here. Sustains most life.
Trees and shurb are adapted to shade in this part of the rainforest. Plants are short. Plants have large flat leaves to gather sunlight. Most house plants originate here. Not a lot of sunlight. Taken by canopy.
Threats to Tropical Rainforest.
Temperate deciduous forests
Undisturbed areas with moderate to high average annual precipitation tend to be covered in forest. Humans usually live here. Trees lose their leaves each fall. Moderate average temperatures. Slower decomposition, with rich fertile soil. Dominated by deciduous trees: oak. maple, etc. Drop leaves in the fall and become dormant.
aka Boreal Forest. Northern coniferous forest. Long winters, snow insulates the forest floor. Average temperatures below freezing. Greater amount of precipitation during the summer. Conifers such as spruce live here. Waxy coated needles to help keep warm.
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