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Topic 7 Cell Communication
Terms in this set (32)
the process of cell-to-cell communication mediated by signaling molecules and membrane receptors
Signal Transduction Pathway
A series of steps linking a mechanical or chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response.
signals pass through a cell junction from the cytosol of one cell to adjacent cells
signaling between adjacent cells (paracrine and synaptic)
When specialized cells release hormone molecules to target cells in other parts of the body.
A secreted molecule that influences cells near where it is secreted.
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
the target cell's detection (by binding to a receptor protein) of a signal molecule from outside the cell.
the process that changes a signal received by a cell into a cellular response
an action or change in behavior that occurs as a result of a stimulus
A molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule.
G protein-coupled receptor
A signal receptor protein in the plasma membrane that responds to the binding of a signaling molecule by activating a G protein
A GTP-binding protein that relays signals from a plasma membrane signal receptor, known as a G protein-coupled receptor, to other signal transduction proteins inside the cell.
Similar to ATP, this is also used for energy transfer by breaking its phosphate bonds.
Guanine Diphosphate. When bound to a G-protein, it is inactive.
receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)
membrane receptor with the ability to trigger more than one signal transduction pathway at once
ion channel receptors
Membrane proteins bind to signal molecule, the signal causes proteins to change shape so that an ion channel is open
ligand gated ion channel
A protein pore in the plasma membrane that opens or closes in response to a chemical signal, allowing or blocking the flow of specific ions.
This type of receptor is within a cell (not transmembrane). Molecules must cross the plasma membrane to affect this type of receptor.
The covalent addition of phosphate group to a side chain of a protein catalyzed by a protein kinase. phosphorylation usually alters the activity or properties of the protein in some way.
removing a phosphate functional group
An enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein.
An enzyme that removes phosphate groups from proteins, often functioning to reverse the effect of a protein kinase
A small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecule or ion, such as calcium ion or cyclic AMP, that relays a signal to a cell's interior in response to a signal received by a signal receptor protein.
Cyclic AMP (cAMP)
a ring-shaped molecule made from ATP that is a common intracellular signaling molecule (second messenger) in eukaryotic cells (for example, in vertebrate endocrine cells).
An enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP in response to a chemical signal.
inositol triphosphate (IP3)
In particular signal transduction pathways, a second messenger that activates transport proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum to release Ca2+ into the cytoplasm.
In hormone action, the second messenger produced by hydrolytic removal of the head group of certain phospholipids.
One signal molecule can cause thousands of responses because each intermediate molecule in the signal transduction pathway activates several proteins.
A type of large relay protein to which several other relay proteins are simultaneously attached to increase the efficiency of signal transduction.
A scaffolding protein and all the proteins associated/attached to it for a transduction pathway.
programmed cell death involving a cascade of specific cellular events leading to death and destruction of the cell
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