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Ch. 3 - Part 1: Plasma Membrane
Terms in this set (68)
Separates two of the body's major fluid compartments - the intracellular fluid within cells and the extracellular fluid outside the cell.
Lipids with attached sugar groups.
Glycolipids are found only on the ____ plasma membrane surface.
Has a polar region and a nonpolar region - found in between fatty acid tails.
Stabilize the membrane while decreasing mobility of phospholipids and the fluidity of the membrane.
Firmly inserted into the lipid bilayer. Protrude on both sides of the membrane - hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.
Not embedded in the bilayer - attach loosely to integral proteins and are easily removed without disrupting the membrane.
A protein that spans the membrane may provide a hydrophilic channel across the membrane that is selective for a particular solute.
Receptors for Signal Transduction
Proteins that that have a binding site outside of the cell will change in shape when a specific chemical fits, initiating chemical reactions within the cell.
Attachment to the Cytoskeleton and Extracellular Matrix
Elements of the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix may anchor to membrane proteins, which helps maintain cell shape and fix the location of certain membrane proteins.
A team of several enzymes in a membrane may catalyze sequential steps of a metabolic pathway as indicated (left to right).
Membrane proteins of adjacent cells may hook together in various kinds of intercellular junction - temporary binding sites that guide cell migration and other cell-to-cell interactions.
Some glycoproteins serve as identification tags that are specifically recognized by other cells.
A series of integral protein molecules in the plasma membrane of adjacent cells fuse together, forming an impermeable junction that encircles the cell.
Help prevent molecules from passing through the extracellular space between adjacent cells.
Anchoring junctions that bind adjacent cells together - molecular "velcro" - and help form an internal tension-reducing network of fibers.
Communication junction between adjacent cells.
The tendency of molecules or ions to move from an area where they are in higher concentration to an area where they are in lower concentration.
A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms.
The activity of an organism depends on both the individual and the combined activities of its cells.
Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function
Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function
The biochemical activities of cells are dictated by their shapes or forms, and by the relative number of the subcellular structures they contain.
Cells can only arise from other cells.
A cells loss of cellular ____ underlies virtually every disease.
Three main parts of a human cell:
Substances contributing to body mass that are found outside the cells.
Fluid Mosaic Model
A model of a cell the depicts the plasma membrane as an exceedingly thin structure composed of a bilayer of lipid molecules with protein molecules "plugged into" or dispersed in it.
Constructed largely of phospholipids, with smaller amounts of glycolipids and cholesterol.
Does not like water.
Consists of glycoproteins and glycolipids that form a fuzzy, sticky, carbohydrate-rich area at the cell surface.
Can cross the membrane without any energy unput form the cell.
Cell provides the metabolic energy needed to move substances across the membrane.
Selectively/Differentially Permeable Barrier
Allows some substances to pass while excluding others.
Nonpolar and lipid-soluble substances diffuse directly through the lipid bilayer.
Transported substances either: 1) binds to protein carriers in the membrane and is ferried across or 2) moves through water-filled protein channels.
Transmembrane integral proteins that are specific for transporting certain polar molecules or classes of molecules that are too large to pass through membrane channels.
Transmembrane proteins that transport substances, usually ions or water, through aqueous channels from one side of the membrane to the other.
The diffusion of a solvent, such as water, through a selectively permeable membrane.
Allows single file diffusion of water molecules.
The total concentration of all solute particles in a solution.
The back pressure exerted by water against the membrane.
The tendency of water to move into the cell by osmosis.
The ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of cells by altering the cells' internal water volume.
Have the same concentrations of nonpenetrating solutes as those found in cells.
Higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes than seen in the cell.
Contain a lower concentration of nonpenetrating solutes than cells.
Requires carrier proteins that combine specifically and reversibly with the transported substance.
Move solutes "uphill" against a concentration gradient.
Primary Active Transport
The energy to do work comes directly from hydrolysis of ATP.
Secondary Active Transport
Driven indirectly by energy stored in concentration gradients of ions created by primary active transport pumps.
Two transported substances move in the same direction.
Transported substances "wave to each other" as they cross the membrane in opposite directions.
Recognizing the effect of both electrical and concentration (chemical) forces.
Fluids containing large particles and macromolecules are transported across cellular membranes inside bubble-like, membranous sacs called vesicles.
Moving substances into, across, and then out of the cell.
Moving substances from one ares, or organelle, in the cell to another.
"cell eating" - the cell engulfs some relatively large or solid material.
Cytoplasm flows into temporary extensions that allow them to creep along.
"cell drinking" - a bot of infolding plasma membrane surrounds a very small volume of extracellular fluid containing dissolved molecules.
Exquisitely selective mechanism allows cells to concentrate material that is present only in small amounts in the extracellular fluid.
"little caves" - Tubular or flask-shaped inpocketings of the plasma membrane seen in many cell types.
Vesicular transport process that eject substances from the cell interior into the extracellular fluid.
Voltage across the membrane.
Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)
PLay key roles in embryonic development, wound repair, and in immunity.
A huge and diverse group of integral proteins and glycoproteins that serve as binding sites.
Chemicals that bind specifically to plasma membrane receptors.
A regulatory molecule that acts as a middleman or relay to activate a membrane-bound enzyme or ion channel.
Connect plasma membrane events to the internal metabolic machinery of the cell.
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