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Biology EOC Review for gim

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Monosaccharides
What are the monomers (building blocks) of carbohydrates?
Fatty acids and glycerol
What are the monomers (building blocks) of lipids?
Amino acids
What are the monomers (building blocks) of proteins?
Nucleotides
What are the monomers (building blocks) of nucleic acids?
1. primary source of energy (quick energy). 2. used in structures (makes cell walls and exoskeletons).
What are the functions or purpose of carbohydrates?
1. makes up cell membranes (phospholipid bilayer). 2. long-term energy storage. 3. Insulation (blubber) and waterproofing (waxy cuticle)
What are the functions or purpose of lipids?
1. Transport materials in/out of a cell (protein channels). 2. Make up muscle, hair, tendons. 3. Speed up chemical reactions (enzymes)
4. Hormones that help with growth and development
What are the functions or purpose of proteins?
1. Contains the genetic info. 2. Helps make proteins.
What are the functions or purpose of nucleic acids?
Starch (plants) and glycogen (animals)
What are complex carbohydrates that plants and animal use to store excess carbs?
Glucose
What is a common simple sugar (carbohydrate)?
Cellulose (plants) and chitin (exoskeleton of animals)
What are 2 carbohydrates that help build structures in plants and animals?
1. Insulin - helps maintain sugar (glucose) levels in the blood. 2. Enzymes - speed up chemical reactions. 3. Hemoglobin - on red blood cells
What are some examples of proteins?
Fats, oils and waxes
What are some examples of lipids?
DNA & RNA
What are 2 examples of nucleic acids?
Triglyceride (3 fatty acids and glycerol) a type of lipid
What type of organic molecule is pictured here?
Protein or polypeptide
What type of organic molecule is pictured here?
Nucleotide
What type of organic molecule is pictured here?
Carbohydrates
What type of organic molecule is pictured here?
To break down sucrose into glucose and fructose.
What is the enzymes job in this reaction?
sucrose and water
What is/are the reactant(s) in this reaction?
Glucose and fructose
What is/are the product(s) in this reaction?
No. The enzyme remains unchanged and can work on another substrate molecule.
Do enzymes get used up by a reaction?
Temperature and pH
What are 2 environmental conditions that may cause an enzyme to denature or change shape so it no longer works?
A-enzyme, B-active site, C-substrate or reactants, D-product
What is each structure in the above reaction?
Nucleus (K)
Stores the DNA in eukaryotic cells; Sometimes called the control center of the cell. What organelle am I???
Cell membrane or plasma membrane (L)
Controls what enters and leaves the cell; it is selectively permeable. What organelle am I????
Cell Wall (R)
Provides support & structure to plant, fungi & bacteria cells; found outside cell the membrane. What organelle am I????
Mitochondria (M)
Site of cell respiration in eukaryotic cells... Produces ATP or usable cell energy. What organelle am I????
Vacuole (P)
Stores water & dissolved material; in plants it is usually the largest organelle. What organelle am I????
Chloroplast (O)
Use sunlight (solar energy), CO2 and H2O to make glucose (C6H12O6) and O2. What organelle am I????
Ribosome (J)
Smallest organelle found in all cells; makes protein; gets instructions from DNA. What organelle am I????
Mitochondria
What organelle is pictured here?
Vacuole
What organelle is pictured here?
Chloroplast
What organelle is pictured here?
Prokaryote / bacteria cell because the DNA isn't in a nucleus. The DNA is in the cytoplasm.
Is this a prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell? Is it a plant, animal or bacteria cell?
Eukaryotic (has a nucleus), plant cell because there is a large central vacuole, chloroplasts and a cell wall.
Is this a prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell? Is it a plant, animal or bacteria cell?
Eukaryotic (has a nucleus), animal cell.
Is this a prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell? Is it a plant, animal or bacteria cell?
DNA, cell membrane, cell wall, ribosomes, cytoplasm
Out of the following organelles, which ones does a bacteria (prokaryotic cell) have? Nucleus, DNA, Cell membrane, Cell wall, Chloroplasts, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Cytoplasm
Sperm cell
My job is to carry genetic info to an egg for sexual reproduction. What type of cell am I??
Red blood cell
I allow for gas exchange by delivering O2 and collect CO2. What type of cell am I?
Paramecium (protist)
I am a single celled organism; I live in pond water. What type of cell am I?
Neuron (nerve cell)
I help send messages between your brain and the rest of your body. What type of cell am I?
A cells structure (shape) is directly related to its function (what it does).
What is cell specialization?
cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
What are the levels of organization of life, beginning with the basic unit of life?
400x
When using a compound light microscope, if the eyepiece is 10x and the objective lens is 40x, what is the total magnification?
homeostasis
What is maintaining a stable internal environment despite changes externally?
Sweating, blood comes to the surface of the skin to release heat.
When you are exercising, movement of your muscles creates lots of heat. How does your body respond to help maintain homeostasis?
cell membrane
What organelle (shown above) helps a cell maintain homeostasis by controlling what goes into and out of a cell?
Passive Transport
What type of transport moves things in/out of the
cell without using energy... things go with the
concentration gradient.
Diffusion, osmosis and facilitated diffusion
What are the 3 types of passive transport?
Active transport
What type of transport moves things in/out of the cell using energy... things go against the concentration gradient.
protein pumps, endocytosis and exocytosis
What are the 3 types of active transport?
Passive, diffusion because the material is moving from high to low concentration (no energy)
Is this active or passive transport? What specific process is moving the material?
Active, pump because the molecules are moving from low to high concentration with energy (ATP).
Is this active or passive transport? What specific process is moving the material?
Passive, facilitated diffusion because molecules are moving from high to low concentration through a protein channel (no energy)
Is this active or passive transport? What specific process is moving the material?
Active transport, exocytosis because material is moving out of the cell using energy.
Is this active or passive transport? What specific process is moving the material?
Osmosis
What is the passive movement of water across a cell membrane?
The left would have water move in and the cell would swell or grow. Water always moves to dilute where there are more dots (solute).
If osmosis were to occur, which cell is likely to have water move in? (left or right)

What would happen to this cell?
Osmosis is occurring. There is more solute on the right side of the tube so the water moves to the right to dilute the solute.
What is happening in this picture?
Water moves out and the cell would shrink.
If osmosis were to occur, which direction would the water move and what would happen to the cell?
Water moves in and the cell would swell.
If osmosis were to occur, which direction would the water move and what would happen to the cell?
The cells would shrink.
What would happen to the cells of a freshwater fish placed into a salt water tank?
The cells would swell.
What would happen to the cells of a saltwater fish placed into a a fresh water tank?
The cells would shrink because water would move out of the cells into the saltwater.
What could happen to the blood cells of a person in a hospital if they received an IV that contained a concentrated salt solution?
The cells would grow and possibly pop.
What could happen to the blood cells of a person in a hospital if they received an IV that contained a pure water?
The cells would grow but not pop because of the cell wall.
What happens to plant cells placed in distilled (pure) water?
ATP - energy storing molecule that helps cells move and work
What is this molecule and what does it do?
Energy is stored in the bonds between the phospates (P). When a phosphate is removed, energy is released and ADP is formed.
How is energy released from ATP?
phosphate, ADP
To make more ATP a _______________________ must be added on to a molecule of ____________
Using energy from the sun to produce glucose (a sugar)
What is the definition of photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O yields C6H12O6 + 6O2
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
Chloroplast
What is the organelle pictured above where photosynthesis occurs?
Plants, plant-like protists and some bacteria
What organisms undergo photosynthesis?
carbon dioxide, water and light
What are the reactants of photosynthesis?
glucose and oxygen
What are the products of photosynthesis?
Takes energy in glucose and stores it in ATP
What is the definition of cellular respiration?
6O2 + C6H12O6 yields 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP
What is the equation for cellular respiration?
mitochondria
What is the organelle pictured above where cellular respiration occurs?
All organisms
What organisms undergo cellular respiration?
glucose and oxygen
What are the reactants of cellular respiration?
carbon dioxide, water and ATP
What are the products of cellular respiration?
Oxygen gas is produced due to photosynthesis
What is gas is produced in the setup above? Explain
Carbon dioxide because the yeast are undergoing cellular respiration
What gas is produced in the setup above which contains yeast and sugar in the flask? Explain
Oxygen
What does aerobic respiration require in order to make ATP?
36-38 ATP
How much ATP can aerobic respiration make?
2 ATP
How much ATP can anaerobic respiration make?
Aerobic because more energy is produced for them to do work. Also lactic acid doesn't build up during aerobic respiration.
If your muscle cells are able to produce ATP through aerobic & anaerobic respiration, which process would best for them to use?
alcohol (ethanol), carbon dioxide and 2 ATP
What is produced when yeast ferment sugar without oxygen?
lactic acid
When oxygen isn't present, what is produced by your muscles that causes them to be sore?
Nucleotides
What are the building blocks of nucleic acids (DNA & RNA)?
Phosphate, sugar and a nitrogen base
What are the 3 parts to every nucleotide?
deoxyribose
What is the sugar found in DNA?
ribose
What is the sugar found in RNA?
A, T, C, G
What are the nitrogen bases in DNA?
A, U, C, G
What are the nitrogen bases in RNA?
2
How many strands make up a DNA polymer?
1
How many strands make up a RNA polymer?
double helix
What is the shape (form) of DNA?
mRNA (messenger), rRNA (ribosomal), tRNA (transfer)
What are the 3 types (forms of RNA)?
Nucleus
Where is DNA found in a eukaryotic cell?
Made in the nucleus but also in the cytoplasm and ribosome.
Where is RNA found in a eukaryotic cell?
DNA makes an exact copy of itself before a cell divides (splits in 2) so each new cell has a copy of DNA
What is DNA replication and when does it occur?
C-G-A-T-T-A-G-C-G-A-T-T
Given the following sequence:
G-C-T-A-A-T-C-G-C-T-A-A what is the complementary DNA sequence?
Half of the DNA is conserved. Each strand of DNA serves as a template for the new strand. An old strand pairs with a new strand.
DNA replication is known as semiconservative. What does this mean?
Transcription and translation
What are the 2 steps of protein synthesis?
Instructions from the DNA strand are copied to form mRNA. Occurs in the nucleus.
What happens during TRANSCRIPTION and where does this step take place in a cell?
The mRNA binds to the ribosome and tRNA molecules bring amino acids to the ribosome based on the code in mRNA.
What happens during TRANSLATION and where does this step take place in a cell?
amino acids, peptide
Each protein is made out of many ___________ ____________ linked together by _____________________ bonds.
codon
3 mRNA nucleotides that code for 1 amino acid
anticodon
3 tRNA nucleotides; each is complementary to a codon.
AUG UAC AGG UGA
Given the following DNA sequence, what would be the mRNA?

TAC ATG TCC ACT
Methionine-Tyrosine-Arginine-Stop
Given the following mRNA sequence, what would be the amino acid sequence?

AUG UAC AGG UGA
Frameshift - deletion (the G was removed)
What type of mutation would cause the above original strand (TAC ATG TCC ACT) to become
TAC ATT CCA CTA ?
All the amino acids from the point of the mutation on are changed so the protein is nonfunctional.
What happens as the result of a frameshift mutation?
Asexual reproduction
Type of reproduction used to:
- Grow and replacement of worn out cells
- Daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent cell (clones)
binary fission by bacteria
What type of asexual reproduction is pictured above?
Budding
What type of asexual reproduction is pictured above?
Mitosis
What type of asexual reproduction is pictured above?
Sexual reproduction
the union of two haploid cells (usually from two different organisms) to create an organism with a
new combination of traits.
Meiosis
Process that makes egg and sperm which are haploid (1N) cells... they carry half the info
needed to make an organism.
Gametes
Sex cells (egg and sperm
Fertilization
After meiosis has cut the chromosomes number in half, ________________ restores the diploid (2N)
number chromosomes in cell.
Genetic diversity that increases the chance of survival for a species.
What is a benefit of sexual reproduction?
A-zygote, B-embryo, C-fetus
After fertilization what is the progression of development (A, B, C)?
Mitosis
What process allows an organism to GROW from a zygote to a baby?
somatic (body) cells
Where in the body does mitosis occur?
ovaries and testes to make gametes (sex cells)
Where in the body does meiosis occur?
asexual
Is mitosis involved in sexual or asexual reproduction?
sexual
Is meiosis involved in sexual or asexual reproduction?
Limit (a clone or exact copy is made)
Does mitosis limit or increase genetic variation?
Increases genetic variation
Does meiosis limit or increase genetic variation?
2
How many cells are made at the end of mitosis?
4
How many cells are made at the end of meiosis?
Skin, muscle, blood cells. The cells would have 46 chromosomes.
What type of human cell is produced by mitosis and how many chromosomes would it have?
Egg and sperm (gametes). These cells have 23 chromosomes.
What type of human cell is produced by meiosis and how many chromosomes would it have?
2n is the diploid number (46 in humans), n is the haploid number (23 in humans)
What does the symbol'2n' represent in the above diagrams?
D - X & Y
Which diagram illustrates fertilization that would most likely lead to the development of a normal human male?
mitosis
The diagram above represents the early stages development of a human embryo. Which process in the diagram is represented by the arrows as it changes from a one cell to many cells? __________
A. meiosis
B. fertilization
C. mitosis
D. evolution
dominant, recessive
In guinea pigs:
A capital letter is used for the black allele (B) because it is __________________. The white allele (b) is ______________
0/4BB, 2/4 Bb, 2/4 bb
What are the genotypic ratios given the Punnett square above?
2 black, 2 white
What are the phenotypic fractions given the Punnett square above?
Purple is dominant. The parents are both heterozygous Pp.
Two pea plants with purple flowers are crossed and produce 100 offspring: 65 purple and 35 white.
Is purple dominant or recessive?
How would you describe the genetic makeup of both parents?
1. Rr x Rr, 2. 25%
In snapdragons, incomplete dominance can be seen in flower color: red = (RR), pink = (Rr), white = (rr)
Cross two PINK snapdragons.
1. What would be the genotypes of the parent plants? ______ X ______
2. What percent of their offspring are expected to be red? _____________
No, they can only make black or checkered chickens.
If a black chicken mates with a checkered chicken could they produce a
white chicken?
1. tt, 2. Mom and Dad both Tt
Disorders such as Tay-Sachs are recessive. T = normal, t = Tay-sachs
1. In the F3 generation, there is an affected daughter
(she has the disease). What is her genotype? ____
2. What must be the genotpe of her parents?Mom = _____ Dad = ________
1. Mom = Dd, Dad =dd; 2. 50%; 3. No
Some diseases such as Huntington's are caused by autosomal dominant alleles. H = Huntington's, h = normal
1. What is the genotype of the parents in the P1 generation?
Mom = ______ Dad = ______
2. If a parent has Huntington's gene, what is the chance that
they will pass it on to each child? ____________________
3. Can a dominant disorder skip a generation? ___________
1. XHXh, 2. From his mom since mom gives the X which has the recessive allele and dad gives the Y
1. What is the genotype of the last female in the fourth generation?
2. The oldest son in the second generation has hemophilia. Did he inherit this disease from his
father or his mother? Explain.
A. XHXh x XHY
B. 1/4 = 25%
C. 1/2 = 50%
D. Daughter since there is a 0% chance for a daughter to have hemophilia.
Cross a female that is a carrier for hemophilia with a male that has normal blood clotting.
A. Parents genotypes:_______ X _____
B. What percentage of this couple's offspring do we expect to have hemophilia?
C. What percentage of this couple's sons do expect to have hemophilia?
D. If this couple could choose the gender of their child, which do you think they
would pick? Explain.
1. IAi
2. IAIB
3. IBIB
4. ii
Fill in 1-4 by giving the appropriate genotype.
1. 50%
2. 50%
3. 0%
4. 0%
If a man has Type AB blood and his wife has Type O blood, what is the chance that their child will have type AB blood?
Use the Punnett square below to show the possible blood types of their children
1. _____ % of their children are expected to be Type A
2. _____ % of their children are expected to be Type B
3. _____ % of their children are expected to be Type AB
4. _____ % of their children are expected to be Type O
1. B; 2. A; 3. C
1. Which graph shows beak size as a trait controlled by 1 gene with complete dominance?
2. Which shows 1 gene with incomplete dominance?
3. Which shows beak size as a polygenic trait? _____
1. Male, 2. trisomy 21 because there are 3, 21 chromosomes
1. What is the gender of the patient?
2. What diagnosis would you make for this patient? Why?
1. 44
2. 2
3. 46
4. Nondisjunction during meiosis
Answer the following questions about what you would expect to see in a
normal karyotype:
1. How many autosomes should there be?
2. How many sex chromosomes should there be?
3. How many total chromosomes would you expect to find?
4. What would cause a child to have too many or too few chromosomes in their cells?
Human genome project
Sequenced all the DNA in a human cell (determined order of A's, T's, C's and G's)

Goal is to identify and treat diseases and disorders.
Gene therapy
Inserting a working gene into individuals that have a non-working copy of the gene to try and treat or cure a disease
Stem cells
Cells that are not differentiated and can become anything.
Genetic Transformation
Taking DNA from one organism and putting it into another organism so they exhibit the trait.
Transgenic organism
An organism with DNA from another organism.
DNA fingerprint
Shows a pattern of DNA that can be used to identify an individual.
Cloning
Making an identical copy of an organism
Gel electrophoresis
Separates pieces of DNA by size and makes a unique pattern of bands or stripes making a DNA fingerprint
Father 2
Who is the father?
John
Whose blood was at the scene of
the crime?
Deer 3
Which Deer (2-4) is most closely
related to the deer #1 (the
common ancestor)?
Abiogenesis
spontaneous generation or life comes from non-life
Biogenesis
'life creates life' or all cells come
from preexisting cells
1. How organic molecules were formed from inorganic molecules.
2. Amino acids
3. Amino acids make proteins which are building blocks for life.
1. What was the experiment above trying to demonstrate?

2. What did they find?

3. What was significant about what they found?
Prokaryotic
The first life forms were simple ___________________________ cells that did not have a
nucleus or membrane found organelles.
Anaerobic
Since there was little free oxygen on the planet, the first cells were likely to be___________________________.
That eukaryotic cells were formed when smaller prokaryotes moved inside larger prokaryotes and they formed a relationship.
What does the Endosymbiotic Theory state?
change of a species over time
What is evolution?
Descent with modification
Idea of evolution that states newer forms appearing in the fossil record are actually modified descendents of older species. And all species are descendants from one or a few original types of life
Natural selection
The idea of evolution that states the environment determines which traits are favorable and it limits the growth of populations. It increases the rate of death or decreases the rate of reproduction (or both)
Variation. Those with the best traits would survive and reproduce and those without it would die and/or not reproduce.
Based on the picture above, what is a key component of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection?
Fossil, homologous structures, embryological evidence, analysis of biological molecules (DNA & proteins)
What are some examples of evidence that supports evolution?
1. changed
2. youngest
1. Studying the fossil record shows how the species have ________________ over time.

2. The law of superposition (the fossils found closest to the surface are the __________
These structures are homologous structures. The show similar bone development but all the limbs serve a different function. This is evidence of common ancestry.
How does the picture of the
forelimbs of these animals support
the theory of evolution?
Similar genes are at work really early on during development.
What do these embryos tell us about the
relationship between the human and the
salamander?
These animals develop similar structures because they live in similar environments, however these animals are not closely releated.
How do the wings of birds & bugs or the
body design of sharks and dolphins
support the theory of evolution?
DNA & proteins (amino acide sequence)
The best evidence to support how closely related two species are comes from comparing their (macromolecules):
_________ and _______.
1. Some bacteria or insects are born with a mutation prevents them from being killed by the antibiotic or pesticide. These are the organisms that survive and reproduce and produce others that are resistant.

2. Mutations
1. How does bacterial resistance to antibiotics or insect resistance to pesticides relate to evolution?

2. What causes the development of resistance?
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
All organisms are classified into groups or taxa based upon their characteristics Name the taxa from largest to smallest.
Plant and Animal
Originally there were 2 kingdoms (_______________ & _____________). More kingdoms added as knowledge of the diversity of organisms increased.
Genus + species
Linnaeus developed binomial nomenclature - which we still use to give all living organisms a scientific
name (__________________ + ________________)
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class
If two organisms are in the same order, they must also be in the same:
Prokaryotic
Cells that do NOT have a nucleus or membrane bound organelles.
Eukaryotic
Cells that have a nucleus or membrane bound organelles.
Autotrophs or producers
organisms that are able to make
their own organic compounds (self feeders)
Heterotrophs or consumers
organisms that must consume other organisms to get organic compounds (different food)
Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
Out of the following kingdoms: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae & Animalia, which are prokaryotic?
Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Out of the following kingdoms: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae & Animalia, which are eukaryotic?
Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista
Out of the following kingdoms: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae & Animalia, which are unicellular?
Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Out of the following kingdoms: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae & Animalia, which are multicellular?
Animalia
Out of the following kingdoms: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae & Animalia, which one does not contain organisms with a cell wall?
Cellulose
What is the primary component of the cell wall in plants?
Chitin
What is the primary component of the cell wall in fungi?
Plantae
Out of the following kingdoms: Fungi, Plantae & Animalia, which are autotrophs?
Fungi (decomposers) & Animalia
Out of the following kingdoms: Fungi, Plantae & Animalia, which are heterotrophs?
Viruses
_________________ are not classified as a living things and therefore do not belong in any of the kingdoms.
Phylogenetic tree
What is the diagram above called?
Gibbon
Which is the most primitive primate seen in the diagram?
Ambystoma maculatum, spotted salamander
What are the scientific and common names for this salamander?
1. The slimy salamander because they have the same genus.
2. Small size (under 17 cm long)
1. Which salamander in the chart is the red backed salamander most closely related to?

2. Is a newt normally larger or smaller than 17cm?
Vascular tissue (xylem & phloem)
What allows a plant to grow move water up so that it can grow up toward the sun?
Seed
What part of a plant contains a small baby plant covered in a seed coat
for protection?
Flowers
What contains the reproductive organs in angiosperms?
Ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms
Of the 4 main types of plants: mosses, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms, which ones have vascular tissue?
Gymnosperms and angiosperms
Of the 4 main types of plants: mosses, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms, which ones have seeds?
Angiosperms
Of the 4 main types of plants: mosses, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms, which ones have flowers?
1. cuticle - prevents water loss
2. epidermis - protection
3. palisades mesophyll - photosynthesis
4. vascular bundle - transport water and nutrients
5. guard cells and stoma - for gas exchange
Name the layers of the leaf and what is the function.
The light - phototropism
Explain what is causing the shoot to bend.
1. take in O2; release CO2
2. take in CO2, release O2
Gas exchange:
1. Animals: Take in ___; Release ___
2. Plants: Take in ___; Release ___
1. Respiratory
2. Lungs, Gills &moist skin
1. What body system controls gas exchange in animals?
2. What are some organs that aid in gas echange?
Stoma (holes on the underside of
leaves)
How do plants exchange gasses with the environment?
Circulatory
What body system is responsible for transport by moving gasses, nutrients, hormones and water throughout the organism and includes organs like arteries, veins, capillaries; accessory hearts or a 2, 3 or 4-chambered heart?
Vascular tissue (xylem - moves water, phloem - moves nutrients)
What part of a plant controls transport of materials?
Reproductive
Which body system is responsible for creating offspring to ensure species survival? Organs in humans include ovaries and testes.
Cones
What is the reproductive structure of an gymnosperm?
Flowers
What is the reproductive structure of an angiosperm?
1. angiosperms
2. sexual because sperm meets egg
3. anther
4. meiosis
5. evolution - the flowers with the best traits are cross-pollinated which increases diversity.
1. What type of plant produces flowers?
2. What type of reproduction occurs in this part of the plant?
3. Where is pollen made?
4. What process makes sperm?
5. What causes plant species to have flowers of certain colors, patterns or scents?
anther - male part, makes pollen
What part is #4?
No. Antibiotics only kill bacteria.
If you are running a fever because you have come down with a virus, should you be put on an antibiotic? Explain.
Before, so your body builds up antibodies. Then if the virus does enter your body it recognizes the intruder and is already prepared to attack.
Should a vaccine be given before or after being exposed to a virus?
sickle, mosquitoes
People who are carriers of __________________ cell anemia are more resistant to malaria (which is caused by a parasite carried by
______________).
production, breakdown, skin
Sunlight is needed for the ___________ of vitamin D. However, too much exposure can causes the ___________ of folic acid is linked to___________ cancer.
Innate behavior
Behaviors that are based on instinct. Example - a newborn's instinct to cry, breathe or to nurse.
Migration
seasonal movement to better environments for reproduction and to find food
Trial & error
learning by to solve a problem by attempting it over and over until you reach the solution.
survival
Social behaviors - increase ______________________ of the species.
pheremones
Communication within social structure using _______________________ (chemical signals). Seen in colonies of bees or ants.
Courtship behavior
Ways of attracting a mate. (i.e. mating calls, dances, etc.)
Terretorial defense
(ex: Fighting Fish)... fighting for food, space and/or mates.
Symbiosis
A close relationship between two different species... result from coevolution
Mutualism
Both organisms benefit (Crocs and Egrets - egrets clean crocs teeth)
Commensalism
One organism benefits & the other is not harmed nor does it benefit (Bird in tree)
Parasitism
One organism benefits at the expense of another (tapeworm in human)
Limiting Factor
Any abiotic (non-living) or biotic (living) factor that limits the size of a population.
Increase
A reduction in the number of predators should cause the number of prey to ______________
1. Predator-prey relationships
2. Competition
3. Crowding and stress
What are 3 interactions that limit population size?
increase, decrease
Population growth is the result of a/an _________________ birth rate and a/an ________________ in death rate (mortality)
Product 1 - CO2 made by cellular respiration
Product 2 - O2 made by photosynthesis
Identify each Product and the process that makes it:
Product 1 = ________________________
(made by _____________________________)
Product 2 = ____________________________
(made by ___________________________)
1. snake
2. grass (producers)
3. producers than consumers
4. 10%
5. 1000 calories
1. Which organism is the secondary consumer?
2. Where does the primary consumer get its energy?
3. To sustain life, each ecosystem must have more ___________ than _____________.
4. What percent of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next?
5. If the grass has 1,000,000 calories of energy, how many calories will be transferred to the hawk?
1. Yes, the deer would be preyed upon more by the wolves.
2. Plants - leaves, nuts, bark, blossoms.
1. Would the deer be affected by a reduction in the rabbit population? Explain.
2. Which are the producers in this food web?
Exponential growth (J-shaped curve)
This graph shows that the population grows fast - rapidly increasing in number. Limiting Factors are not present (unlimited resources). What type of graph is this?
Logistic growth (S-shaped curve)
This graph shows that as resources become less available, population growth slows or stops and levels off at carrying capacity. What type of graph is this?
The first one (exponential growth).
Which graph above shows the growth of human population over the last 10,000 years?
Compare the pre-reproductive group (ages 0-14) to the reproductive group (ages 15-44). If the bottom is wider, the population is growing, if both are approximately equal, then the population is staying the same.
To determine if a population is growing or shrinking you should compare: _____________
CFC's, UV radiation and skin cancer
Ozone depletion is caused by the release of _________ (which have put holes in the ozone layer) thus increasing the risk of _____________________.
greenhouse, CO2
Global warming is also known as the _____________________ Effect. The release of
___________________ into the atmosphere has increased this effect.
Because trees take in CO2
Why would planting trees reduce global warming?
Reduce pollution and burning of fossil fuels, also minimize deforestation (cutting down trees)
What else could be done to reduce global warming?
stigma
What part is #4 on the flower?
ovary
What part is #6 on the flower?
parietal lobe
What part of the brain is indicated by the arrow?
pons
What part of the brain is indicated by the arrow?
frontal lobe
What part of the brain is indicated by the arrow?
Innate immunity
Non-specific immunity
Acquired Immunity
Immunity that targets and attacks specific invaders