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environmental conditions or stimulus changes that exist or occur prior to the behavior of interest


activity of living organisms; also includes interaction with environment

behavior change tactic

a technologically consistent method for changing behavior derived from one or more principles of behavior (e.g) differential reinforcement of other behavrio, reponse cost) possesses sufficient genrality across subjects, settings and or behaviors to warrant its codification and dessimination

conditioned punisher

a previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a punisher because of prior paring with other punishers; sometimes called secondary or learned punisher

conditioned reinforcer

a stimulus change that functions as a reinforcer because of prior paring with one or more other reinforcers


a stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest


gradually diminishing response strength

negative reinforcement

an already present stimulus removed from the environment or reduced in intensity causing the future frequency of the behavior to increase


the history of development of an individual organism during its lifetime

operant conditioning

the basic profess by which learning occurs; consequences (stimulus changes immediately follow responses) result in an increased (reinforcement) or decreased (punishment) frequency of the same type of behavior under similar motivational and enviromental conditions in the future


the history of the natural evolution of a species

positive reinforcement

occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a new stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions

principle of behavior

a statement describing a functional relation between behavior and one or more of its controlling variables with genrality across organism, species, settings, behavior, and time; an empirical generalization inferred from many experiments demonstrating the same functional relation


occurs when stimulus change immediatley follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions


occurs when a stimulus change immediately follows a response and increases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions


all of the behaviors a person can do. But a better definition is a set or collection of knowledge and skills a person has learned that are relevant to particular settings or tasks.


behavior that is elecited by antecedent stimuli

respondent conditioning

a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure in which a neutral stimulus is presendent with an unconditioned stimulus until the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits the conditioned responses (Pavolve classical condition)


a single instance or occurrence of a specific class or type of behavior. A technical definition is an action of an organisms effector

response class

a group of responses with the same function. That is each response in the group produces the same effect on the environment


a decrease in the frequency of operant behavior presumed to be the result of continued contact with or compumption of a reinforcer that has followed the behaivior also refers to a procedure for reducting the effectiveness of a reinforcer

stimulus class

any group of stimuli sharing a predetermined set of common elements in one or more of these dimensions

stimulus control

a situation in which the frequency, latency, duration, or amplitude of a behavior is altered by the presence or absence of an antecedent stimulus

three term contingency

the basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior; antecedent (A)-behavior (B)- consequence (C)

unconditioned punisher

a stimulus change that decreases the frequency of any behavior that immediatley precedes it irrespective of the organisms learning hisotry with the stimulus

unconditioned reinforcer

a stimulus change that increases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organisms learning history with the stimlus

temporal locus

way behavior can be measured. It is when in time a specified behavior occurs

temporal extent

a way behavior can be measured. the duration of a given behavioral event


way behavior can be measured. It is the frequency with which a specified behavior occurs over time


alters the current value of stimulus changes as reinforcement or punishment (satiation or deprivation)

operant behavior

any behavior whose future frequency is determined primarily by its history of consequences

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