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________ is a limited capacity memory system in which information is usually retained for less than a minute unless strategies are used to retain it longer.

Short-term memory

Amnesia in which memory is lost for events that follow an injury

Anterograde amnesia

Prospective memory

remembering to do things in the future

What are three functions of autobiographical memory

It allows us to learn from experience; it provides us with identity; sharing personal experience creates social bonds

What is the order of the encoding process?

Paying attention, processing information at an appropriate level, using imagery and actively engaging the material

What is the name of the specific process in which long-term memories become represented by complex neural pathways?


Working memory

Consists of three parts; conceptualized as a mental workbench; an alternate way of viewing the concept of short-term memory.

The initial recording of information into memory is called


The process of retaining information over time is referred to as ________.


Explicit memory is the ________ recollection of information such as facts and events.


Explicit memory involves ________

Intent, or deliberate remembering

Smells have a connection to the brain structures ________ and ________, which is why smell can trigger rich emotional memories.

Amygdala - emotion; hippocampus - memory consolidation

Define long-term potentiation

The process whereby neural pathways become easily excited while a new response is being learned

Primacy effect

Remembering the first few items on a list

Recency effect

Remembering the last few items on a list

What factors can effect an eyewitness testimony?

New information can distort memory; bias; memory can fade; witnesses may share their thoughts

What defines the idea of two neurons being activated at the same time, and the connection between them, and thus memory, being strengthened?

The concept of long-term potentiation

A special form of episodic memory, ________ memory is a person's recollections of his or her life experiences, which generally include some memory and some myth


The term used to describe the process that occurs when a person forgets something because it is painful or anxiety-laden.

Motivated forgetting

Information must be encoded and ________ so that it can be retrieved later


A subtype of implicit memory that involves behavior which is affected by prior experience

Procedural memory

________ is a memory task where the person has to retrieve previously learned information.


________ is a memory task where the person has to identify learned items.


Divided attention


________ is extensive, involves detailed processing and attempts to make the subject matter meaningful.


The conscious repetition of information


A procedure that involves grouping information that exceeds the 7 + - 2 memory span into higher-order units that can be remembered as single units is called ________.


One way to increase the amount of information that can be retained in short-term memory is to...

Chunk the information

Retrieval cues

hints that make it easier for us to recall information

People remember better when they attempt to recall information in the same external circumstances in which they learned it. This describes...

Context-dependednt memory

The serial position effect

Only being able to remember the beginning and end of a list

Ebbinghaus found that most of the information store in memory...

Cannot be recalled after a few hours

________ is the loss of information due to lack of use.


According to Paivio's dual code hypothesis...

The image code produces better memory; memory for pictures is better than memory for words

The process of retaining information over time is referred to as ________.


What are three problems that interfere in the retrieval process?

Time; other information gets in the way; personal reasons

A schema for an event


To aid in memory, you must...

Stay physically, intellectually and mentally active

Retroactive interference

When material that is learned later interferes with older previously learned material

Explicit memory is the conscious recollection of information and it is sometimes also referred to as ________ memory.


What are the components of Baddeley's working memory theory?

Visuospatial working memory, phonological loop, central executive

Rehearsal increases the...

Length of time that information can be held in short-term memory

Proactive interference

Material you learned earlier interferes with material you learn later

Retrospective memory

Remembering the past

A procedure than can be carried out non-consciously is an example of ________ memory.


At which level of processing are we most likely to recall information?

Deepest level

Anterograde amnesia

Affects the retention of new memories

Retrograde amnesia

Affects memory loss for a segment of the past

The term used to describe auditory sensory memory which is retained for up to several seconds is ________ memory.


The type of visual memory that allows us to "write" in the air with a sparkler is ________ memory.


Neuroscientists have found that the ________ plays an important role in memory.


The frontal lobes of the brain play an important part in ________ memory.


Semantic memory

memory for general knowledge

The cerebellum is involved in the ________ memory required to perform skills.


Sperling's study determined that participants' ________ sensory memory was very rapid.


Subtype of implicit memory involves ________, which is the automatic learning of associations between to stimuli.

Classical conditioning.

Classical conditioning is a subtype of ________ memory.



the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response

There are ________ levels of autobiographical memory.


Cognitive store effect

Being intellectually active increases memory

Autobiographical memory is a special form of ________ memory.


How many stages of memory do psychologists identify and work with?


According to Baddeley's model of working memory, the component that is in charge of integrating information, planning and organizing is the...

Central executive

________ are people with astonishing memory abilitites


3 steps of memory

Encoding, storage, retrieval

Greater elaboration is linked with neural activity, especially in the brain's ________.

Left frontal lobe

Allan Paivio

Dual-code hypothesis

Atkinson-Shiffrin theory

Memory storage involves three separate systems: sensory, short-term and long-term

George Sperling

Sensory memory; flashing a series of letters

George Miller

The magical number; examined memory span

________ is the number of digits an individual can report back in order after a single presentation of them

Memory span

Who came up with the theory of working memory?

Alan Baddeley

In Baddeley's working memory, the Phonological loop...

Briefly stores speech-based information about the sounds of language

The ________ in Baddeley's phonological loop refers to the sounds we heard that decay in a few seconds.

Acoustic code

In Baddeley's working memory theory, the Visuospatial working memory...

Stores visual and spatial information

Explicit memory contains the

Who, what, where, when and why

Implicit memory contains the


Harry Bahrick studied

Retention of students; found that forgetting occurs in the first three years after

________ is information that is retained for a long time.

Permastore content

Endel Tulving

Differentiated between episodic and semantic memory, but also argues that they can work together

________ memory is the memory for skills.


John Bargh

Studied priming; students read a group of words that then influence rude behavior

________ is the theory that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections among neurons.

Connectionist networks

Sections of the brain involved in explicit memory

Frontal lobes (episodic memory), temporal lobes (priming), hippocampus (priming), amygdala (emotional)

________ is the part of the brain involved in implicit memory


The ________ principle states that information present at the time of encoding or learning tends to be effective as a retrieval cue

Encoding specificity principle

Martin Conway and David Rubin

The three levels of autobiographical memory

What are the three levels of autobiographical memory?

Life time periods, general events and event-specific knowledge

________ occurs when the information was never entered into long-term memory.

Encoding failure

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