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89 terms

PSY ch 6) Memory

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________ is a limited capacity memory system in which information is usually retained for less than a minute unless strategies are used to retain it longer.
Short-term memory
Amnesia in which memory is lost for events that follow an injury
Anterograde amnesia
Prospective memory
remembering to do things in the future
What are three functions of autobiographical memory
It allows us to learn from experience; it provides us with identity; sharing personal experience creates social bonds
What is the order of the encoding process?
Paying attention, processing information at an appropriate level, using imagery and actively engaging the material
What is the name of the specific process in which long-term memories become represented by complex neural pathways?
Consolidation
Working memory
Consists of three parts; conceptualized as a mental workbench; an alternate way of viewing the concept of short-term memory.
The initial recording of information into memory is called
encoding
The process of retaining information over time is referred to as ________.
storing
Explicit memory is the ________ recollection of information such as facts and events.
Conscious
Explicit memory involves ________
Intent, or deliberate remembering
Smells have a connection to the brain structures ________ and ________, which is why smell can trigger rich emotional memories.
Amygdala - emotion; hippocampus - memory consolidation
Define long-term potentiation
The process whereby neural pathways become easily excited while a new response is being learned
Primacy effect
Remembering the first few items on a list
Recency effect
Remembering the last few items on a list
What factors can effect an eyewitness testimony?
New information can distort memory; bias; memory can fade; witnesses may share their thoughts
What defines the idea of two neurons being activated at the same time, and the connection between them, and thus memory, being strengthened?
The concept of long-term potentiation
A special form of episodic memory, ________ memory is a person's recollections of his or her life experiences, which generally include some memory and some myth
autobiographical
The term used to describe the process that occurs when a person forgets something because it is painful or anxiety-laden.
Motivated forgetting
Information must be encoded and ________ so that it can be retrieved later
stored
A subtype of implicit memory that involves behavior which is affected by prior experience
Procedural memory
________ is a memory task where the person has to retrieve previously learned information.
Recall
________ is a memory task where the person has to identify learned items.
Recognition
Divided attention
multitasking
________ is extensive, involves detailed processing and attempts to make the subject matter meaningful.
Elaboration
The conscious repetition of information
Rehearsal
A procedure that involves grouping information that exceeds the 7 + - 2 memory span into higher-order units that can be remembered as single units is called ________.
chunking
One way to increase the amount of information that can be retained in short-term memory is to...
Chunk the information
Retrieval cues
hints that make it easier for us to recall information
People remember better when they attempt to recall information in the same external circumstances in which they learned it. This describes...
Context-dependednt memory
The serial position effect
Only being able to remember the beginning and end of a list
Ebbinghaus found that most of the information store in memory...
Cannot be recalled after a few hours
________ is the loss of information due to lack of use.
Decay
According to Paivio's dual code hypothesis...
The image code produces better memory; memory for pictures is better than memory for words
The process of retaining information over time is referred to as ________.
storage
What are three problems that interfere in the retrieval process?
Time; other information gets in the way; personal reasons
A schema for an event
Script
To aid in memory, you must...
Stay physically, intellectually and mentally active
Retroactive interference
When material that is learned later interferes with older previously learned material
Explicit memory is the conscious recollection of information and it is sometimes also referred to as ________ memory.
Declarative
What are the components of Baddeley's working memory theory?
Visuospatial working memory, phonological loop, central executive
Rehearsal increases the...
Length of time that information can be held in short-term memory
Proactive interference
Material you learned earlier interferes with material you learn later
Retrospective memory
Remembering the past
A procedure than can be carried out non-consciously is an example of ________ memory.
implicit
At which level of processing are we most likely to recall information?
Deepest level
Anterograde amnesia
Affects the retention of new memories
Retrograde amnesia
Affects memory loss for a segment of the past
The term used to describe auditory sensory memory which is retained for up to several seconds is ________ memory.
echoic
The type of visual memory that allows us to "write" in the air with a sparkler is ________ memory.
Iconic
Neuroscientists have found that the ________ plays an important role in memory.
Hippocampus
The frontal lobes of the brain play an important part in ________ memory.
Implicit
Semantic memory
memory for general knowledge
The cerebellum is involved in the ________ memory required to perform skills.
Implicit
Sperling's study determined that participants' ________ sensory memory was very rapid.
iconic
Subtype of implicit memory involves ________, which is the automatic learning of associations between to stimuli.
Classical conditioning.
Classical conditioning is a subtype of ________ memory.
Implicit
Priming
the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response
There are ________ levels of autobiographical memory.
Three
Cognitive store effect
Being intellectually active increases memory
Autobiographical memory is a special form of ________ memory.
Episodic
How many stages of memory do psychologists identify and work with?
3
According to Baddeley's model of working memory, the component that is in charge of integrating information, planning and organizing is the...
Central executive
________ are people with astonishing memory abilitites
Mnemonists
3 steps of memory
Encoding, storage, retrieval
Greater elaboration is linked with neural activity, especially in the brain's ________.
Left frontal lobe
Allan Paivio
Dual-code hypothesis
Atkinson-Shiffrin theory
Memory storage involves three separate systems: sensory, short-term and long-term
George Sperling
Sensory memory; flashing a series of letters
George Miller
The magical number; examined memory span
________ is the number of digits an individual can report back in order after a single presentation of them
Memory span
Who came up with the theory of working memory?
Alan Baddeley
In Baddeley's working memory, the Phonological loop...
Briefly stores speech-based information about the sounds of language
The ________ in Baddeley's phonological loop refers to the sounds we heard that decay in a few seconds.
Acoustic code
In Baddeley's working memory theory, the Visuospatial working memory...
Stores visual and spatial information
Explicit memory contains the
Who, what, where, when and why
Implicit memory contains the
How
Harry Bahrick studied
Retention of students; found that forgetting occurs in the first three years after
________ is information that is retained for a long time.
Permastore content
Endel Tulving
Differentiated between episodic and semantic memory, but also argues that they can work together
________ memory is the memory for skills.
Procedural
John Bargh
Studied priming; students read a group of words that then influence rude behavior
________ is the theory that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections among neurons.
Connectionist networks
Sections of the brain involved in explicit memory
Frontal lobes (episodic memory), temporal lobes (priming), hippocampus (priming), amygdala (emotional)
________ is the part of the brain involved in implicit memory
Cerebellum
The ________ principle states that information present at the time of encoding or learning tends to be effective as a retrieval cue
Encoding specificity principle
Martin Conway and David Rubin
The three levels of autobiographical memory
What are the three levels of autobiographical memory?
Life time periods, general events and event-specific knowledge
________ occurs when the information was never entered into long-term memory.
Encoding failure