50 terms

Cold War 2018

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Capitalism
An economic system in which private individuals and corporations control the means of production and use them to earn profits.
Communism
An economic and political system based on one-party government and state ownership of property.
Containment
The blocking of another nation's attempts to spread it's influence - especially the efforts of the United States to block the spread of Soviet influence during the late 1940s to early 1950s.
The Eastern Bloc
Countries in Eastern Europe that were dominated politically and economically by the Soviet Union.
Iron Curtain
A phrase used by Winston Churchill in 1946 to describe the imaginary line that separated Communist countries in the Soviet bloc of Eastern Europe from the countries in Western Europe.
Truman Doctrine
A U.S. policy, announced by President Harry Truman in 1947, of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents.
Marshall Plan
The program, proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947, under which the United States supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after World War II.
Berlin Airlift
A 327-day operation in which U.S. and British planes flew food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviets blockaded the city in 1948.
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
Military alliance created in 1949 made up of 12 non-Communist countries including the United States that support each other if attacked.
Warsaw Pact
A Military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites.
McCarthyism
The attacks, often unsubstantiated, by Senator Joseph McCarthy and others on people suspected of being Communist in the early 1950s.
Red Scare
Promotion of fear of the potential threat of Communism both abroad and on the Home Front.
38th Parallel
Latitude line/boundary between North and South Korea.
John F. Kennedy (JFK)
35th President of the United States. Was in office during the Bay of Pigs Invasion, Cuban Missile Crisis and the building of the Berlin Wall.
Fidel Castro
Communist dictator of Cuba who came into power in 1959.
Bay of Pigs
Failed CIA operation in April 1961to overthrow Castro and take over Cuba using Cuban exiles.
Cuban Missile Crisis
13 Day period in October 1962 when Soviet nuclear missile were pointed at the United States in Cuba.
Berlin Wall
A concrete wall that separated East Berlin and West Berlin from 1961-1989, built by Communist East German government to prevent its citizens from fleeing to the West.
Korean War
A conflict between North Korea and South Korea, lasting from 1950-1953, in which the United States along with other UN countries, fought on the side of the South Koreans while China fought on the side of the North Koreans.
China
Asian nation that turns to Communism in 1949 after the Mao Zedong comes into power and fights with the North in the Korean War.
Hollywood 10
10 witnesses from the film industry who refused to cooperate with the House Un-American Activities Committee's investigation of Communist influence in Hollywood.
Joseph Stalin
Soviet leader following World War II, dies in the middle of the Korean War in 1953.
Harry Truman
33rd President of the United States. He fired General Douglass MacArthur over disagreements on the Korean War.
Mao Zedong
Communist leader of China who comes into power in 1949.
Chiang Kai-shek
Nationalist leader of China who even with aid from the United States cannot stop the spread of Communism.
Blacklist
A list of about 500 actors, writers, producers and directors who were not allowed to work on Hollywood films because of their alleged Communist connections.
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
A congressional committee that investigated Communist influence inside and outside the U.S. government in the years following World War II.
Eisenhower
President during most of the 1950s. Introduced foreign policies of Brinkmanship and Massive Retaliation.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
A U.S. agency created to gather secret information about foreign governments.
Reagan Doctrine
The idea that the US would support freedom fighters trying to overthrow Communist regimes; applied in Nicaragua, Angola, Cambodia and Afghanistan
Potsdam Conference
(1945) a meeting of Allied leaders (Truman, Stalin and Attlee) near Berlin to address issues about the post-World War II Europe.
SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)
A pact that served to freeze the numbers of long-range nuclear missiles for five years in 1972. This treaty between Nixon (U.S.), China, and the Soviet Union served to slow the arms race that had been going on between these nations since World War II.
Sputnik
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
ICBM (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles)
Long-range nuclear missiles capable of being fired at targets on the other side of the globe.
Nikita Khrushchev
Soviet leader from 1955-1964, responsible for putting missiles in Cuba.
Leonid Brezhnev
Soviet leader from 1964 to 1982 who is most known internationally for actions such as his hard-line stance against the pro-democracy Prague Spring protesters in 1968 and well as overseeing Russia's long, costly, and futile war in Afghanistan.
Domino Theory
The idea that if a nation falls under communist control, nearby nations will also fall under communist control
17th Parallel
Line of latitude that separated North and South Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh
Communist leader of North Vietnam, led the fight against the French and then the Americans to reunify the country
Lyndon B. Johnson
Became president after Kennedy's assassination and reelected in 1964; committed the US more heavily to fighting in Vietnam after the Gulf of Tonkin incident
MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction)
The idea that the superpowers had so many nuclear weapons that they would completely destroy each other in a war. Thus war became less likely.
United Nations
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
Brinksmanship
The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. during the Cold War - reached a high point during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
Agreement between the US, Soviet Union, and Great Britain to end the testing of nuclear bombs in the atmosphere or underwater
George Kennan
American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. Wrote the "Long Telegram" advising that the Soviet Union couldn't be dealt with as a normal government
Yalta Conference
1945 meeting between US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and Soviet Leader Joseph Stalin (("the Big Three") to plan for ending the war and the post-war period
Space Race
The competition between the USSR and the USA regarding achievements in the field of space exploration.
Prague Spring
A 1968 program of reform to soften socialism in Czechoslovakia; it resulted in the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia
Afghanistan War
1979-1989. Soviet war to preserve communist rule in Afghanistan, opposed by US-funded mujahideen. The "Vietnam of the USSR"
USA, USSR, Britain, France, China
The nuclear powers during the Cold War, in order of gaining nuclear weapons

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