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Test Two Chem 1150
Terms in this set (123)
what happens when H+ mix with OH-
When an acid and a base are mixed together, the H+ from the acid reacts with the OH− ions from the base to form liquid water. The salt formed is an ionic compound, which usually remains dissolved in the equation.
Acid and base reactions can sometimes this because they react to neutralize the acid and base properties to produce a salt and water.
What happens in titration experiments?
Acid-base reactions determine the concentration of an unknown reactant. Acid-base neutralization and stoichiometry principles are utilized to determine the concentration of the unknown by reacting it with a solution of known concentration.
How do you calculate the concentration of a solution using acid-base titration data?
concentration of base ⟶ moles of base ⟶ moles of acid ⟶ concentration of acid
How many moles of Ba(OH)2 are present in 265mL of 0.400M Ba(OH)2?
0.106 mol Ba(OH)2
A 33.00mL sample of an unknown H3PO4 solution is titrated with a 0.110M NaOH solution. The equivalence point is reached when 26.48mL of NaOH solution is added. How would you go about solving this problem?
Take the number of moles of H3PO4 is determined by multiplying the volume of NaOH by the concentration and by the molar ratio from the balanced equation. The concentration of the H3PO4 solution is determined by dividing the number of moles by the volume.
An example of gas-evolution reactions.
Oxidation states in compounds
group 1A metals have an oxidation state of +1, and
group 2A metals have an oxidation state of +2.
The oxidation state of an atom in a free element is
Examples of free elements include
Mg, Cl2, and N2. (Diatomics)
The oxidation state of a monoatomic ion is
equal to its charge.
Examples of monoatomic ions include
Mg2+ and Cl−, the individual ions present in the ionic compound MgCl2.
The sum of the oxidation states of all atoms is
for a neutral molecule or formula unit: zero; and
for an ion: the charge of the ion.
H, Na, Li
Rank from highest to lowest oxidation state.
NO3-, NO2, NO2-, NO, N2, NH3
Which statement best describes the difference between the charge of a polyatomic ion and the oxidation states of its constituent atoms? (For example, the charge of NO−3 is 1-, and the oxidation states of its atoms are +5 for the nitrogen atom and -2 for each oxygen atom.)
The charge of a polyatomic ion is a property of the entire ion, while the oxidation states are assigned to each INDIVIDUAL atom.
O2 oxidation state is?
Fe3+ oxidation state is
HgS oxidation state is
Hg=+2, S = -2
HSO4− oxidation state is
H= +1, S= +6, O = -2
In an oxidation-reduction reaction, the species reduced
is the oxidizing agent
What happens to a substance when it becomes oxidized?
it loses electrons.
What happens to a substance when it becomes reduced?
it gains electrons.
How to remember oxidized and reduce
A SUBSTANCE that causes the oxidation of another substance is
A SUBSTANCE that causes the reduction of another substance is called a reducing agent.
3O2 + 4Fe → 2Fe2O3
Oxidizing agent: O2
reducing agent: Br2
H2 + Br2 → 2HBr
Oxidizing agent: Fe
reducing agent: H2
titrations / neutralization reaction
wohle molecules dissolved in the water
contains ions dissolved in the water
ionic compounds and strong acids
strong electrolytes example
Weak electrolytes example
strong acid, HCl (group7)
strong acid, HBr (group 7)
strong acid, HI (group 7)
strong acid, HNO3
strong acid, H2SO4
strong acid, HClO4
weak acid, HC2H3O2 or C2H4O2
strong base, NaOH
strong base, LiOH
strong base, KOH
Strong base, Ca(OH)2
strong base Ba(OH)2
weak base NH3
Group 1 metals: Na, K, Li, and NH4
Nitrate and acetate
Soluble Cl, Br, I unless paired with
Ag (silver), Pb (lead), Hg
Soluble Sulfate (SO4 2-)unless paired with
Ag(silver), Sr, Ba, Pb, Ca
Not soluble unless paired with the always soluble
Hydroxide OH, sulfide S, phosphate PO4, carbonate CO3
force multiplied distance
amount of work done by the system
Wsys : negative
amount of work done on the surroundings
change in E
q + w
q (constant pressure) =
C * change in t
change in t
change in E rxn
Eproduct - Ereaction
-P * change in Volume
used to measure heat
measures the change in heat for combustion reactions
change in H = q constant pressure
placing an ice pack on an injury
burning a fire
Thermal energy =
associated with temperture
due to motion
associated with position of electrons and nuclei
due to position and composition
are broken and new bonds are formed that contain potential energy
conversion factor for enthalpy reaction
kJ/ coefficents moles
overall equation is the sum of the heats of reactions for each step
product must equal 1
1 big C =
a kilocalorie or 1000 calorie
Light and electrons both display
wave - particle duality
vertical height ( from trough to crest)
the distance from trough to trough or crest to crest
is the number of waves that pass in a period of time
frequency and wavelength
shorter wavelength, higher frequency
reflects the color we see (light)
absorbs all the other colors
SI unit for wavelength
SI unit for frequency
speed of light
interaction between waves
interacts so that they add to make a larger wave
interact to cancel each other
the bend around
The Quantum-Mechanical Model
understand and predict the properties of atoms
speed of light
though light determined how fast electrons moved, turns out that there is a threshold or minimum frequency required
h * frequency
Etotal / # photons
order from low energy to high
Visible Light (ROYGBIV)
a closer inspection of light emitted by electrons
only shows colors (wavelegths)
different for each element
White light spectrum
is continuous, contains all the colors
Bohor Model of the atom
represents how energy is
Recommended textbook explanations
Chemistry: Structure and Properties
Nivaldo J. Tro
Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change
Martin S. Silberberg, Patricia Amateis
Principles of Chemistry: A Molecular Approach
Nivaldo J. Tro
Principles of Instrumental Analysis
Douglas A. Skoog, F. James Holler, Stanley R. Crouch
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