25 terms

Holt Environmental Science Ch. 5.1-5.2

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Photosynthesis
A process plants use to turn sunlight into sugar molecules
Carbohydrates
A sugar molecule as a result of photosynthesis
Producer
An organism that can make its own food
Autotroph
A"self-feeder"; organism that makes its own food
Consumer
An organism thatgets its energy by eating other organisms
Heterotroph
An "other-feeder"; an organism that cannot make its own food
Herbivores
Consumers that eat only producers
Carnivores
Consumers that eat only other consumers
Omnivores
Consumers that eat both producers and other consumers
Decomposers
Consumers that break down dead organisms
Cellular Respiration
The process of breaking down food to yield energy
Respiration
Another name for breathing
Food Chain
A sequence in which energy is transferred from one organism to the next as each organism eats another organism
Food Web
All the feeding relationships possible within an ecosystem
Trophic Level
Each step which energy is transferred in a food chain
Energy Pyramid
A representation of the loss of energy from one trophic level to the next
Carbon Cycle
Process by which carbon is cycled between the atmosphere, land, water, and organisms
Carbonate
A carbon compound that makes up the hard parts of bones and shells
Carbon Sink
A carbon reservoir; limestone
Fossil Fuels
Deposits of coal, oil, and natural gas underground
Proteins
Used to build new cells; contain nitrogen
Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria
Change atmospheric nitrogen into chemical compounds that can be used by plants
Nitrogen Cycle
Process by which nitrogen is cycled between the atmosphere, bacteria, and other organisms
Legumes
Plants that contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the nodules in their roots; beans, peas, and clover
Phosphorous Cycle
Movement of phosphorous from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment