35 terms

Ch.3 Rocks

Chapter 3 Vocabulary
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rock
a solid mass of mineral or mineral like substance
igneous rock
rock formed when magma or lava cools and solidifies
sedimentary rock
rock formed when sediments are compacted and become cemented together
metamorphic rock
any type of rock that has been changed by heat, pressure, or fluids.
rock cycle
interaction between Earth's water, air, and land systems that change rocks from one type to another
magma
molten material that forms deep beneath the Earth's surface
lava
magma that reaches the surface
weathering
a process of physically or chemically breaking down rocks
sediment
made up of weathered pieces of earth materials
intrusive igneous rock
rocks that form when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface
extrusive igneous rock
rock formed when lava hardens
porphyritic texture
having very different sized minerals in the texture
granitic composition
rocks having quarts and feldspar
basaltic composition
rocks having dark silicate minerals and plagioclase feldspar
andesitic composition
rocks with a composition between granitic and basaltic compositions
ultramafic
being composed almost entirely of dark silicate minerals
erosion
involves weathering and the removal of rock
deposition
when erosive agents drop their sediments
compaction
the process that squeezes or compacts sediment
cementation
when dissolved minerals are deposited in the spaces between sediment
clastic sedimentary rock
rocks made of weathered bits of rocks and minerals
chemical sedimentary rock
rocks formed when dissolved minerals precipitate from water solutions
metamorphism
to change forms
contact metamorphism
when magma intrudes rock and metamorphism takes place.
regional metamorphism
when large areas of rocks are subjected to extreme temperature and pressure, like mountain building
hydrothermal solution
when water solutions that readily change to gasses at surface pressure escape from a mass of magma
foliated metamorphic rock
a metamorphic rock with a layered or banded appearance
nonfoliated metamorphic rock
a metamorphic rock that does not have a banded texture
Which of the following is NOT one of the three major types of rocks?
anthracite
Which of the following forms partly as the result of surface processes?
metamorphic slate
Which of the following would NOT be a major process in the formation of sedimentary rocks?
Melting
The formation of igneous rocks is powered by
Internal heat
A fine-grained igneous rock forms
As the result of quick cooling
Cementation often occurs after Earth materials are
Deposited
Ripple marks indicate that the rock formed
in water