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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (75)
Point
An exact location in space: no size
Line
Straight arrangement of points that extends forever in opposite directions; two points only
Plane
A flat surface that extends forever: no edges
Line segment
Pert of a line that consists of 2 end points
Ray
Part of a line that has one end ont and extends forever in one direction
Angle
2 rays that share a common end point
Name one way you cannot name an angle
Cannot name with just the vertex
acute angle
An angle greater the 0 degrees but less than 90 (all angles are acute when needed to classify)
Right angle
An angle equal to 90 degrees (one angle is right when needed to classify)
Straight angle
An angle equal to 180 degrees (line)
Complementary angle
2 angles whose sum of their measures is 90 degrees.
Supplementary angles
2 angles whose sum of their measures is 180 degrees
Adjacent angles
Two angles that share a common side
Vertical angles
When 2 lines intersect, the angles that are not adjacent (equal in measure)
perpendicular lines
2 lines that intersect to form right angles (all angles are 90 degrees)
Parallel lines
2 lines are in the same plane that never intersect
Skew lines
Lines that do not lie in the same plane
Transversal
A line that intersects 2 or more lines in the same plane on different points.
Congruent
Same size same shape (figures are congruent; mesures are equal)
Corresponding angles
Angles that are in the same position with respect to the 2 lines and the transversal. (When the two lines are parallel, the corresponding angles are congruent, and their measures are equal)
Alternate interior angles
When a transversal intersects 2 lines the 2 lines the 2 angels that lie between the 2 line and an opposite sides of the transversal
Alternate exterior angels
When a transversal intersects 2 lines, 2 angels that lie outside the 2 lines on opposite sides of the transversal
Obtuse angle
Greater than 90 degrees but less than 180 (one angle is obtuse when needed to classify)
scalene triangle
No sides have the same length
isoceles triangle
At least 2 sides have the same length
Vertex angle
Angle formed by two congruent legs.
Base angle
Angles opposite of the vertex (they are congruent and their measures are equal)
Equilateral traingel
All 3 sides have the same length, also called a regular triangle or equal angular triangle - all angles are 60 degrees
Triangle Inequality
In any triangle, the sum of any two sides length must be greater than the length of the third side.
quadrilateral
Polygon with 4 sides; sum of 360º
Parallelograms
Quad with opposite sides congruent opposite angles are equal; two sets of parallel sides
Rhombus
Parallelogram with four congruent sides
Rectangle
Parallelogram with four right angles
Square
Rhombus with 4 right angles; rectangle with four congruent sides
Trapezoid
Quadrilateral with exactly 1 pair of parallel sides
Iscoceles trapezoid
Trapezoid with one pair of parallel sides, and the other sides are congruent.
Factor
Numbers multiplied to get a product; a number that divides evenly into another
Prime number
Whole numbers greater than 1 with only 2 factors - one and itself
Composite number
Whole numbers greater than 1 with more than two factors
One is
Not prime more composite
2 is
The only even prime number
4 is
The smallest composite number
Prime factorization
A product of prime numbers
Monomial
A number, a variable, or the product of a number and one or more variables raised to the whole number power
Common factor
A whole number that is a factor of 2 or more non-zero whole numers
GCF
Greatest of the common factors; we will use prime factorization to find the GCF
Multiple
A whole number that is a product of a number and any non-SERP whole number
Common multiple
A multiple that is shared by 2 or more numbers; ex: 24 is a common multiple of 4 and 6
Least common multiple
The least of the common multiples; use prime factorization to find the LCM
Equivalent fractions
2 fractions that represent the same number (multiply or divide the numerator and denominator by the same number)
Simplest form
A fraction whose numerator and denominator are relatively prime
Product of powers properly
It multiply powers with the same base, add the exponents.
Negative exponents
Change the location (numerator, denominator) of the base to make the exponent positive
Rational number
A number that can be written as a quotient of two number (fraction)
Irrational numbers
Numbers that cannot be written as a fraction (non terminating- non repeating)
Real number
Consists of all rational and Irrational numbers
To solve equations and inequalities......
Isolate the variable
Inequalities
If you multiply by a negative, the inequality sign changes
Equivalent rates
2 rates that have the same value
Proportion
An equation that states 2 ratios are equal since 4/20 = 5/1 then it is called a proportion; in proportion a/b = c/d (b≠0, d≠0) or a:b c:d
Extremes
A and D in a proportion a/b c/d
Means
C and D in a proportion
Percent
Per 100, a ratio whose denominator is 100
Percent of increase
New amount is greater than the original amount (percent of original is new amount)
Percent of decrease
New amount is less than the original amount (percent of original is new amount)
Interest
The amount of money earned or paid for the use of money
Simple interest
Interest that is earned or paid
Principal
The amount of money borrowed or deposited
Annual interest rate
Percent of the principle earned or paid per year
Balance
When an account earns interest, the interest is added to the principle; balance = principal + (principal)(rate)(time) = A= P + PRT
Perfect squares
An integer, fraction, or decimal when squared
Square root
If 7^2 = 49 then the square root of 49 is 7
Radical sign
√ = represent non-negative square roots
Leg
Two sides that form the right angle
Hypotenuse
Longest side of the right triangle; side opposite of the right angle
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