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Acid Rain

sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Produced by electric power generation (burning fossil fuels/coal), which produces sulfic acid and nitric acid. Has a pH of 4.3. Acid rain causes respiratory disease, toxic metals in drinking water, decrease of atmospheric visibility, loss of fish species, leaching of nutrients from soil, and kills trees.


"Alley cropping" crops planted between trees. Trees provide shade, retain water, provide mulch.

Aldo Leopold

Land ethicist who said we are ethically bound to preserve wild nature. U of Wisconsin, founded Wilderness Society.


98% ice. 70% of world freshwater, 90% of world ice. Core ice shows that today's CO2 is highest in 650k years. average temp is -49*C

Air Pollution

coal=54% of today's electricity production. Smog, soot, acid rain, global warming are biggest air polluters in US. CA is most polluted, Southern States are least.


create own food (plants, grass, trees)


consume autotrophs for food/energy


range of life forms and life maintaining processes. Loss of biodiversity=reduction in natural ecosystem services, adaptability of species to altered environments.

Biogeochemical cycling

aka nutrient cycles. Cycle of natural abiotic resources: water, nitrogen, sulfur, carbon.

Hydrologic cycle

evaporation (ocean)>condensation (clouds)>transport (wind)>precipitation (rain)> infiltration (soil)>runoff (back to sea)


78% of atmosphere. attaches to soil, used by plants, back to gas when plant dies. Smog, ammonia.


all organisms nee. reacts with chemicals in atmosphere and with water. Causes erosion, acid rain.




cycled by water, earth's crust, living organisms.


major, classified, recognized community with well-recognized plant and animal life. based on rain/climate.


[Coniferous] evergreen (tundra>trees). Cold winter, pleasant summer.
[Taiga] largest land biome. freezing winters, warm summers.
[Deciduous] "turns" with seasons. All 4 seasons.
[Tropical Rain] 2% of earth. 50-80% of land species.
[Temperate Rain] cooler than rainforest, less diverse, but humid.
[Boreal/Polar] sub-arctic, tall coniferous trees, few species.


<25cm/10in of rain per year. Sparse, spaced out low vegetation, few animals. Dormant in dry periods.


grazing/browsing animals. not enough moisture for trees.
[Chaparral] can withstand/regenerate after fire.
[Tropical] long dry season, low/med rain, wide belt along Equator
[Temperate] cold winter, hot/dry summer, uneven rainfall, fertile soil
[Tundra] polar, south of arctic ice cap. Short growing period, no trees. Permafrost, cold/windy.
[Savannah] warm year-round, 2 dry seasons, rainfall rest of year.


20% of land surface. High ground sanctuary for animals


70.8% of Earth (2.5%=freshwater). salt water, fresh water, estuaries.

Climate Change

Temp increased 1F in past century, faster increase in last 2 decades. Avg World Temp=60F. 1998 hottest. Chemical buildup of greenhouse gasses=trap heat.


degradation of tropical rainforests for human resources, causes decrease of ecological resources


when semiarid or arid land loses productive potential by 10%+. Long term drought. Topsoil is renewable but takes 200-1000 years to produce 1 inch.


70.8% water (2.5% fresh), 29.2% land (20% mountain, 2% rainforest, 1.5% urban, 3.2% forest, 4.7% crops, 2.6% pasture, 13.13% arable, .7% desert)


interaction between organisms and their nonliving environment.


[Producers] create their own food from environment's compound
[Consumers] herbivores, omnivores, carnivores, scavengers
[Decomposers] detrivores, recycle/make shit


each individual species in an ecosystem


various species living in same space


community of species interacting in environment.
[Abiotic] nonliving (water, air, etc.)
[Biotic] plants, animals


when neighboring ecosystems join up to form transitional areas


all of the planet's ecosystems in which life occurs

Ecological Niche

all factors affecting life/reproductions of a species. Generalists survive in varied places (e.g. cockroaches, rats, humans), while Specialists have limited adaptability (e.g. pandas, salamanders)


natural nutrient enrichment of lakes.
[Ogliotrophic] nutrient-poor water
[Turpid] murky


single-cell Prokaryotic (no nucleus)>single-cell Eukaryotic>Bacteria>multicellular organisms


66% of Earth's land disturbed by human activities
[Traditional Subsistence] only enough labor for farmer's family to survive
[Traditional Intensive] more labor to feed family and sell
[Interplanting] several crops on same plot
[Industrialized Plantation] cash crops, large areas of land


30,000 edible plant species; only 3 grain (rice, wheat, corn).

Food Chain

primary producer>primary consumer>secondary consumer>tertiary consumer

Food Web

overlapping food chains

Fossil Fuels

compressed plant/bacteria. CO2 not released until fuel is mined or burned

Green Revolution

First 1950-70. Increase crop yield per area. 2nd 1967-present developed dwarf crops.

Greenhouse Gases

sun>shortwave radiation>absorbed by earth>reflected as longwave radiation>trapped by gases.
hold in heat and keep earth warm; increased 25% since industrial resolution

Origins of Greenhouse Gases

[CO2] from solid waste, fossil fuels, photosynthesis
[Methane] production of coal, natural gas, oil. Decomposition of organic waste, livestock.
[Nitrous Oxide] agricultural and industrial activities
[Hydroflourocarbons/HFC] industrial processes, ac, fridges, aerosols

Gross Primary Product (GPP)

rate producers and plants create more biomass via photosynthesis. Reefs are high, deserts and oceans are low.


75% of drinking water; agriculture

HABs (Algae Blooms)

lakes. Deplete oxygen, kill marine species, birds. release toxins, damage fisheries.


[Habilis] "handyman".
[Pleistocene] short w/long arms, used tools, half-sized brain.
[Erectus] "uprightman".
[Pleistocene] brain 75% migration, fire, hunter/gatherer, speech.
[Ergaster] "workingman".
[Pleistocene] 6ft tall, less sexual dimorphism, weapons.
[Neanderthal] "Neander Valley".
[Paleolith] short/robust, 100% bran, advanced weapons, shelter, bury dead.
[Sapien] "thinking man" competition for resources, herd, language, art.


flood, overhead, center pivot, lateral, drip/trickle, subirrigation


66% disturbed by human activity.


atmosphere (gravity), troposphere (lower, up to 4-12 mi), stratosphere (ozone, up to 31 mi), mesosphere (up to 53), thermosphere (up to 430), exosphere (up to 6200) (hydrosphere/water, lithosphere/rocks, biosphere/life)

Oil Spills

crude petroleum takes 3 yrs to recover; refined takes 10

Organic Substances

plant and animal products

Inorganic Substances

water, rocks, soil, gases


stratosphere; reaction of emissions with sunlight.


sunlight>sugar>ATP>convert CO2 to O2 and sugar


primary released directly to troposphere, secondary formed when primary react with air and one another

Human Population

6.47 billion. China & India 38%. US 4.6%

Life Expectancy

MDC=75, LDC=50, Jap=79, Afr/Asia=47

Crude Birth Rate

live births divided by midyear population. # births per 1000 pop

Crude Death Rate

Deaths divided by midyear population. # deaths per 1000 pop

Fetal Mortality Rate

20+ weeks gestation. Fetal deaths/live births+fetal deaths

Infant Mortality Rate

Infant (<1) deaths/live births

Neonatal Mortality Rate

<28 days. # NnD/1000 live births

Postneonatal Mortality Rate

28-365 days. # / 1000 live births

Birth Cohort Rate

deaths in same year or following year after birth. #/100,000 live births

Maternal Mortality Rate

#/100,000 live births

Fertility Rate

# live births/100,000 women 15-44 yrs old

Replacement Level Fertility

# of children each couple must produce to replace themselves. MDC=2.1, LDC=2.5

Total Fertility Rate

Average expected births in 1000 women

Annual Rate of Natural Population Change

(%) = (birth rate-death rate)/(1000 persons) x 100

Population Change Rate

[Births + Immigration] - [Deaths + Emigration]


primary (same product), secondary (different product)


anything obtained from environment which meets human needs and desires. Perpetual, renewable, non-renewable.

Soil Conservation

limit erosion/replenish fertility. Nutrients lost by erosion.


fossil combust. Primary and secondary pollutants mix in sunlight.

Stack Pollution

from chimney


Primary=new organism takes over an area. Secondary=old organism leaves area


Inertia: persist, withstand disturbance. Constancy: maintain population. Resilience: regenerate.


4.6 billion years old. 98% of solar system's mass. Surface=photosphere. 91% hydrogen, 9% helium. Core=2.7m*F


temperature, pressure, humidity, sunshine, cloud cover, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation.

Clean Air Act

1963, 70, 77, 90. acceptable levels of air pollution

Endangered Species Act

1973. protects ecosystems, resources, and species from harm

Environmental Protection Agency

1970. Nixon. Earth Day.

Kyoto Protocol

1998. 67 countries, created framework for reducing emission of GH Gases into atmosphere.

Montreal Protocol

1987. 46 nations freeze production of CFCs

National Environmental Policy Act

1969. Federal agencies must research effects of proposed activities before implementing.

Non-governmental Organizations

30,000 worldwide. lobby politicians.

Sffe Drinking Water Act

1974, set EPA standards

Silent Spring

1962 book by Rachel Carson.

Superfund Law

1980. Comprehensive environmental response, compensation and liability act. Response to Love Canal.

Toxic Substances Control Act

1976. Compulsory checks on substances before widespread use.


UN conference on human environment 1972.

Rio Earth Summit

UN conference on human environment 1992.

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