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Middle Ages (500-1500)
Terms in this set (109)
When merchants faced invasions from the land and sea. The breakdown of trade between european cities.
What is the Disruption of Trade?
The germanic tribes
Who had no written language but had oral traditions with songs and legends?
French,Spanish, and Roman-base languages
By the 800's what three languages had been developed from the language latin?
Who provided order and security during the fall of the roman empire?
Also known as the medieval period, the time between the collapse of the Roman Empire in the fifth century AD and the beginning of the Renaissance in the fourteenth century.
Germanic people who lived and held power in Gaul. Their leader was Clovis and he would later bring Christianity to the region. By 511 they had united into one kingdom and they controlled the largest and strongest parts of Europe.
A place where communities of monks live lives of devotion to God in isolation from the outside world
Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters.
family that ruled the franks from 751 to 987
800 AD crowned by the Pope as the head of the Holy Roman Empire, which extended from northern Spain to western Germany and northern Italy. His palace was at Aachen in central Europe, 1st Holy Roman Emperor
Classical heritage of Rome, Beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church, and Customs of various Germanic tribes
What were the three roots of western culture in western Europe?
The decline of learning, Loss of a common language, and Invasions of western Europe
What are three ways that civilization in western Europe declined after the roman Empire fell?
The most important achievement that Pope Gregory 1 did was to make the papacy Secular
What was the most important achievement of Pope Gregory 1?
The relationship between the Frankish king and the pope was beneficial to both because the king becomes The roman Emperor and the pope spreads the religion christianity to the kings people
How was the relationship between a Frankish king and the pope beneficial to both?
A man who received honor and land in exchange for serving a lord as a soldier.
A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.
Magyars and Vikings
What groups invaded Europe during the 800's?
Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages
a series of jousts between knights contesting for a prize
A traveling poet and musician of the Middle Ages.
Some obligations were a few days of work and a certain portion of their grain
What obligations did a peasant have to the lord of the manor?
Clergy,nobility, and serfs
What were the three social classes of the Feudal system?
Leather Saddles and Stirrups
What were two inventions from Asia that changed the technology of warfare in Western Europe?
Noblewoman and Peasant Woman
Who were the occupants of a castle?
Epic poetry and Love poems
What were some of the themes in medieval literature?
It was an important role for a knight because he was bound to the lord until upgraded to a lord himself
How important of a role did knights play in a feudal system?
They were both used often in epic and love poems
How was the code of chivalry like the idea of romantic love?
A prayer invoking God's power and care upon some person, place, thing, or undertaking. The prayer of Benediction acknowledges God as the source of all blessing.
Benedict's sister who adapted the rules for women or nuns.
Religious community where Christians called monks gave up their possessions and devoted their lives to serving God.
in 590 became pope, broadened the pope's office beyond spiritual rule, also became a worldly political power. became center of roman government, raked armies, repaired roads, helped poor, the first medieval pope.
Devoted to a particular religious sect, particularly when referring to religious involvement in politics
Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe, "The Hammer".
Pepin the Short
He was Charles Martel's son. He was king and the Pope asked him for help against the Lombards who were invading. He helps him and defeats them and in turn, the Pope names him king of the Franks. Then he gives the Pope's land called the Papal States.
literally "mayor of the palace" - the most powerful person (official) in the kingdom; was in charge of the royal household & estates- was the unofficial commander of the armies and made policy.
A series of Frankish rulers including Pepin and Charlemagne lasting from 751 to 987
which byzantine emperor began the iconoclastic controversy which led the formation of the greek orthodox church. He banned the use of icons.
the act of crowning
Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia, Another name for Norsemen.
The importance was that these ships were really fast.
What was the importance of the Vikings ships?
When the climate warmed up it made it easier for the vikings to farm, so fewer Scandinavians adopted the sea faring life of The Viking Warriors.
How did the Climate Change help the vikings who lived in Scandinavia?
A political, economic, and social system based on the relationship between lord and vassal in order to provide protection
a person who controlled land and therefore could grant estates to vassals
A person who received a grant of land from a lord in exchange for a pledge of loyalty and services
An estate granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for service and loyalty
A person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
The subdividing of fiefs so that the vassal becomes someones lord.
A group or system in which positions of power are ranked, usually from lowest to highest
What was the feudal system based on?
The knights would be sent to become a knight at the age of 7 and then when ready for battle they would fight until ranked to become higher in the ranks of the Feudal system.
Chivalry in truth?
Knights would compete for a maiden at a tournament.
Chivalry in Fiction?
Women were powerless, women ran the house when there husbands were away at war.
What was the Women's role in feudal society?
center of village/peasant life. Social center and Spiritual center. Center of learning
What was the Role of the Church?
money given to support the clergy
Crowned emperor by pope in 962 CE; first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Holy Roman Empire
An empire established in Europe in the 10th century A.D., originally consisting mainly of lands in what is now Germany and Italy.
A ceremony in which kings and nobles appointed church officials
The italian city where pope Gregory VII stayed. Henry traveled here in the snow to beg for forgiveness after being excommunicated.
11th-century pope who attempted to free the Catholic church from interference of feudal lords; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over the practice of lay investiture of bishops.
Holy Roman Emperor, opposed the pope on the issue of lay investiture, he is excommunicated and ends up begging the pope for forgiveness
Concordat of Worms
A compromise between the king and the Pope that started that the church alone could grant a bishop his ring and staff (church power) but his power could be vetoed by the king.
Bishops selling positions in the Church
Who was the leader of the Franks?
pope's group of advisors acted as court, the administrative staff of the Catholic Church, composed of cardinals who assist the pope in running the church.
A member of a religious order who lived and worked among the public.
Founded by Saint Dominic. Members of these religious orders, friars, lived and preached among the people instead of secluding themselves in monastries as members of most other religious orders did. Church ordered to seek out heretics and eliminate hersey.
Founded by St. Francis of Assis in 1209. Attempted Church reform, for example preaching directly to the people rather than monastic life. Members were called Friars.
Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills into Roman cities.
heir to the throne of Castile, an active princess that married Ferdinand. she wore the red cross of a crusader in the final battle of the conquest of Granada
(1480?-1521) Portuguese-born navigator. Hired by Spain to sail to the Indies in 1519. (The same year HRE Charles V became emperor.) Magellan was killed in the Philippines (1521). One of his ships returned to Spain (1522), thereby completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
An organization of priests in Spain that looked for and punished anyone suspected of secretly practicing their old religion instead of Roman Catholicism.
Thousands of French and German children marched to the Holy Land, though many were sold as slaves or got lost. The few children that did were massacred in the Holy Land.
(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem
Richard the Lion-hearted
English king who fought Saladin in the Third Crusade
Called First Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to mount military assault to free the Holy Land from the Muslims.
A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.
Three Field System
a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests.
A person who works for another in order to learn a trade
A person who has learned a particular trade or craft but has not become an employer, or master
A person recognized by his or her guild as skilled in a particular trade.
A dramatic change in the economy of Europe at the end of the Middle Ages. It is characterized by an increase in towns and trade, the use of banks and credit, and the establishment of guilds to regulate quality and price.
Many people can trace their last names, or surnames, back to medieval occupation in Europe. The name Smith, for example, refers to someone who "smites," or works, metal. The surname Silversmith would belong to a person who works silver. In German-speaking areas, a smith was named Schmidt. Someone who made goods out of wood was often surnamed Carpenter.
Merchant class town dwellers
In early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealth came from manufacturing, finance, commerce, and allied professions.
Merchants and professional people from towns and cities.
(Roman Catholic Church) Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology.
Scholars who gathered and taught at medieval European universities.
Land of the Angles
What does the word England mean?
William the Conquerer
Invaded England from Normandy in 1066; extended tight feudal system to England; established administrative system based on sheriffs; established centralized monarchy.
Most powerful noble, became king of England in 1066 after death of Edward the Confessor, ruled for brief time until defeated and killed at the Battle of Hastings.
signed in 1215, a british document that contains two basics ideas monarchs themselves have to obey the laws and citizens have basic rights.
King John Softsword
lost battle in normandy, raised taxes, signed Magna Carta.
a council of lords, clergy, and common people that advised the English king on government matters.
The first class of French society made up of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church.
The second class of French society made up of the noblility
The third class of French society made up of peasants, artisans etc.
city that was home of the popes for 67 years. city where Church was "held captive".
(1378-1417) Split in the Catholic Church with one Pope in Avignon and the other in Rome, led to questioning the authority of the Church.
Council of Constance
the council in (1414-1418) that succeeded in ending the Great Schism in the Roman Catholic Church.
A Czech priest and professor, he criticized the wealth and authority of the church. He was excommunicated in 1410 and burn at the stake in 1415.
Also called the Black Death was a deadly disease that spread through Europe and killed one out of every three people.
Hundred Year's War
Series of battles between England and France over French Territories and dispute over who and how France would be ruled.
Banishment from the church
when a whole area is excommunicated, to forbid, prohibit.
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