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Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion
Terms in this set (73)
the force that causes us to do things, to think things, and to feel things
an innate sequence of behavior that usually occurs in response to a stimulus
a reflex in babies in which they will instinctively turn their heads toward anything that brushes against their cheeks
a reflex in babies in which they instinctively suck at anything that touches the roofs of their mouths
palmar grasping reflex
a reflex in which babies will instinctively grasp with both their hands
plantar grasping reflex
a reflex in which babies will instinctively grasp with both their feet
In 1924, who counted more than 5,000 possible human instincts?
drive reduction theory
a theory that suggests that many motivations arise out of need to maintain a state of internal equilibrium or balance
a state of biological or psychological tension, such as hunger or thirst
the control of body temperature
one theory that is better at accounting for some of humans' more complex underlying motivations
pleasurable experiences that are separate from an activity
pleasurable experiences that are inherent to an activity
Intrinsically motivated activities feel less ___.
states that humans prefer that their thoughts and behaviors make sense relative to one another
fritz heider; suggests that humans are motivated to reduce or remove imbalance by reassessing and adjusting their cognitions
Fritz Heider used ___ to demonstrate his theory.
first proposed by Mark Leark and colleagues; states that humans have a fundamental motivation to belong
refers to how positively or negatively our attitudes are toward ourselves
the motivation to pursue good things
the motivation to avoid bad things
reinforcement sensitivity theory
proposes that approach and avoidance motivation are housed within the brain's circuitry
behavioral approach system
approach motivation is controlled by brain structures that are referred to collectively as ___.
behavioral inhibition system
avoidance motivation is controlled by brain structures called the ___
when the ___ is active, people become motivated to pursue desirable outcomes
when the ___ is active, people become motivated to avoid or prevent undesirable outcomes
the process of combining genetic material from two individuals to create an offspring
twofold cost of sex
it takes two sexually reproducing individuals to make a single offspring
___ reproduction produces more genetic variability
Which two hormones play prominent roles in sexual motivation in both humans and other animals?
produced primarily by the ovaries and are found in much higher quantities in women than in men
produced primarily by the testes and are found in much higher quantities in men than in women
___ in particular increases sexual behavior in both men and women
Where in the brain does sexual motivation appear to be housed?
the ___ of the cortex appear to play important roles in terms of directing sexual behavior toward appropriate targets
the direction of one's sexual attraction; describes whether and with whom individuals are motivated to have sex
who conducted the first and most famous exhaustive study of human sexuality in the 1940s?
What is the probability that if one identical twin is gay, the other is also?
What is the probability that if one fraternal twin is gay, the other is also?
proposes that the same genes that cause homosexuality also cause a variety of other traits, some of which are reproductively adaptive
who is considered to be the father of american psychology?
a subjective experience that can involve thoughts, arousal, and behaviors; tend to be more focuses
tend to be more diffuse and longer lasting
a positive or negative evaluation of something; tend to be localized to our thoughts
common sense theory of emotion
states that common sense tells us that things in our environment cause us to experience emotions and those emotional experiences cause a variety of physical changes in our bodies
James Lange theory of emotion
states that emotion is actually the product of physical changes in our bodies; stimuli cause physical changes and these physical changes cause emotion
cannon bard theory of emotion
states that emotion is actually caused by a structure in the brain called the thalamus and that in response to external stimuli, the thalamus simultaneously creates the conscious experiences of emotion and the physical changes that accompany emotional experiences
schachter singer two factor theory of emotion
states that emotion is produced by the experience of physical sensations in the body and interpreted by the cerebral cortex in context
Who proposed that there are six basic emotions?
interest, joy, sadness, anger, disgust, fear
What are the six basic emotions
Who came up with the circumplex model of emotion?
circumplex model of emotion
proposes that all emotions can be described in terms of just two dimensions: valence and arousal
an emotion's ___ is whether the emotion would be described as pleasant or unpleasant
an emotion's ___ describes whether the emotion is associated with high or low arousal
Lisa Feldman Barett
proposed a solution for the circumplex model; suggested that specific emotional experiences are the products of core affect and a conceptualization process
opponent process theory of emotion
states that emotions come in opposite pairs; proposes that emotions are either pleasurable or painful
a process of experiencing one type of emotion that often leads to a later experience of the opposite emotion
___ emotions occur first in the opponent process theory
___ emotions occur last in the opponent process theory
___ emotions decrease in intensity with repeated experiences
___ emotions increase in intensity with repeated experience, but will eventually decrease with continued experience
yerkes dodson law
states that performance on tasks correlates with arousal
a machine that measures changes in physiological arousal; measures heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and perspiration rate
who famously showed that even people who had never had contact with another culture were able to recognize what members were communicating via different facial expressions?
___ are more likely to be diagnosed with mood disorders and twice as likely to be diagnosed with depression and are significantly more likely to attempt suicide
cultural norms that dictate how men and women are expected to act
subjective well being
the subjective evaluation of one's life
satisfaction with life scale
the method behind a happiness measure is called
self determination theory
states that all humans have three needs that must be met for them to thrive psychologically and be happy
the need for humans to feel as if they are in control of their behavior and decisions
the need for humans to feel as if they can do things well or can at least get better at doing things
the need for humans to feel as though they have meaningful relationships with other people
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