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Patho 1-3

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1. Explain the role of pathophysiology in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
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Terms in this set (29)
Pathophysiology requires the use of knowledge of basic anatomy and physiology and is based on a loss of or a change in normal structure and function. Many disorders affecting a particular system or organ, for example the liver, display a set of common signs and symptoms directly related to that organ's normal structure and function. Also, basic pathophysiologic concepts related to the causative factors of a disease, such as the processes of inflammation or infection are common to many diseases. While studying pathophysiology, the student becomes aware of the complexity of many diseases, the difficulties encountered in diagnosis and treatment, and the possible implications arising from a list of signs and symptoms or a prognosis.
Gross Level- Organ or system level
Microscopic Level- cellular level
Biopsy- excision of a small amount of living tissue
Autopsy- Examination of the body and organs after death
Diagnosis- identification of a specific disease
Etiology- causative factors in a particular disease in an individual
Predisposing factors- tendencies that promote development of a disease in an individual
Pathogenesis- development of the disease
idiopathic-unknown cause
iatrogenic- caused by treatment, error or procedure
Clinical manifestations: signs and symptoms
Acute disease- develops quickly, marked signs, short term
Chronic- Often milder, develops gradually, persists for a long time
Subclinical state- pathologic changes occur, no obvious manifestations
Latent state- no symptoms or clinical signs are evident
Prodromal period- early development of disease, signs are non-specific or absent
Syndrome- collection of signs and symptoms, often affecting more than one organ
Remissions- manifestations of disease subside or are absent
Precipitating factors- condition that might trigger an acute episode
Complications- New secondary or additional problems
Therapy- treatment measures to promote recovery or slow the progress of a disease
Sequelae- unwanted outcomes of primary condition
Convalescence- period of recovery
Prognosis- probability for recovery or for other outcomes
Rehabilitation- Maximizing function of diseased tissues
Epidemiology- Science of identifying the causative factors and tracking the pattern or occurrence of disease
Morbidity- indicates the number of people with a disease within a group
Mortality- indicates the number of deaths resulting from a particular disease w/in a group
Epidemics- occur when a higher than expected number of cases of an infectious disease occur w/in a given area
Pandemic- involve a higher number of cases in many regions of the globe
Occurrence of disease- tracked by incidence and prevalence
Incidence- number of new cases in a given population w/in a specified time period
Prevalence- # of new and old or existing cases in a specific population and w/in a specified time period
This information is essential to identify any impact health care activities might have on a patient's condition, or how a patient's illness might complicate care. The assessment includes questions on current and prior illnesses, allergies, hospitalizations, and treatment. Current health status is particularly important, and should include specific difficulties and any type of therapy or drugs, prescription, non-prescription, and herbal items, including food supplements. Knowledge of pathophysiology is essential to developing useful questions, understanding the implications of this information, and deciding on the necessary precautions or modifications required to prevent complications.
• Atrophy refers to a decrease in the size of cells, resulting in a reduced tissue mass (Fig. 1-2). Common causes include reduced use of the tissue, insufficient nutrition, decreased neurologic or hormonal stimulation, and aging. An example is the shrinkage of skeletal muscle that occurs when a limb is immobilized in a cast for several weeks.
• Hypertrophy refers to an increase in the size of individual cells, resulting in an enlarged tissue mass. This increase may be caused by additional work by the tissue, as demonstrated by an enlarged heart muscle resulting from increased demands (see Fig. 18-23). A common example of hypertrophy is the effect of consistent exercise on skeletal muscle, leading to an enlarged muscle mass. Excessive hormonal stimulation may also stimulate cell growth.
• Hyperplasia is defined as an increased number of cells resulting in an enlarged tissue mass. In some cases, hypertrophy and hyperplasia occur simultaneously, as in the uterine enlargement that occurs during pregnancy. Hyperplasia may be a compensatory mechanism to meet increased demands, or it may be pathologic when there is a hormonal imbalance. In certain instances there may be an increased risk of cancer when hyperplasia occurs.
• Metaplasia occurs when one mature cell type is replaced by a different mature cell type. This change may result from a deficit of vitamin A. Sometimes, metaplasia may be an adaptive mechanism that provides a more resistant tissue; for instance, when stratified squamous epithelium replaces ciliated columnar epithelium in the respiratory tracts of cigarette smokers. Although the new cells present a stronger barrier, they result in decreased defenses for the lungs because cilia are no longer present as a defense mechanism for the simpler squamous cells in the mucosa.
• Dysplasia is the term applied to tissue in which the cells vary in size and shape, large nuclei are frequently present, and the rate of mitosis is increased. This situation may result from chronic irritation infection, or it may be a precancerous change. Detection of dysplasia is the basis of routine screening tests for atypical cells such as the Pap smear (Papanicolaou test on cervical cells).
• Anaplasia refers to cells that are undifferentiated with variable nuclear and cell structures and numerous mitotic figures. Anaplasia is characteristic of cancer and is the basis for grading the aggressiveness of a tumor.
• Neoplasm means "new growth," and a neoplasm is commonly called a tumor. Tumors are of two types, benign and malignant (see Figs. 5-1 and 5-2). Malignant neoplasms are referred to as cancer. Benign tumors do not necessarily become malignant. Benign tumors are usually considered less serious because they do not spread and are not life threatening unless they are found in certain locations, such as the brain, where they can cause pressure problems. The characteristics of each tumor depend on the specific type of cell from which the tumor arises, resulting in a unique appearance and growth pattern. Neoplasms are discussed further in Chapter 5.