Chapter 32 Assisting in gastroenterology
Clinical medical assisting
Terms in this set (56)
The surgical joining together of two normally distinct organs
A hard, impacted mass of feces in the colon
Narrow slits of clefts in the abdominal wall
Gas expelled through the anus
Abnormal enlargement of the liver
The valve guarding the opening of the ileum and cecum
The surgical formation of an opening of the ileum on the surface of the abdomen through which fecal material is emptied
Black, tarry stool containing digested blood; usually caused by bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract
Tumors on stem frequently found in the mucosal lining of the colon
Physicians who specialize in diseases and disorders of the stomach, small intestine (colon), and appendix and the accessory organs of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
Membrane that lines the abdominal cavity in mammals and covers most of the viscera
A double layer of peritoneum that attaches to the back wall of the abdominal cavity and supports the small intestine
A fold of peritoneum supporting the viscera
A fibrous band of scar tissue that binds together horally separate anatomical structures
Accumulation of serous fluid in peritoneal cavity dropsy of the peritoneum
Substances that cause cancer
Treatment for esophogeal varices
A disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people living in a particular area
Elevated pressure in the portal circulation resulting from obstruction of venous flow into and through liver (cirrhosis of liver)
Surgical crushing of a stone
Elarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus
The process of wave-like muscle contractions of the digestive tract that moves food along
Glottis is closed and pressure builds up in the thorax. BP decreases and fainting or heart failure occur
Three primary functions of the digestive system
Digestion, absorption, elimination
The gallbladder is located in the ___ quadrant of the abdomen
The appendix is located in the ___ quadrant of the abdomen
The stomach is located in the ___ quadrant of the abdomen
The liver is located in the ___ quadrant of the abdomen
The pancreas is located in the ___ quadrant of the abdomen
The seven parts of the large intestine, in order.
Ascending, Right colic flexure, Transverse, Transverse mosocolon, Left colic flexure, descending, Sigmoid
The ___ delivers bile from the liver to the duodenum where the digestion is completed
The ____ intestine is made up of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum?
The small intestine is lined with transverse folds of tissue called ___
A(an) __is a surgical procedure that is performed to cure advanced ulcerative colitis
3 disorders of the esophagus and stomach?
Hiatal Hernia, GERD, Gastric Duodenal ulcers (description below)
Hernia resulting from the protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm
Backflow of the contents of the stomach into the esophagus
Gastric duodenum ulcers
Gastric ulcer formation involves widespread gastritis, inflammation of the oxyntic cells and atrophy of acid and pepsin-producing cells. Duodenum ulcers are associated with high acid and low bicarbonate secretion
Describe 10 different sx of disorders of the intestines.
Illness caused caused by poisonous or contaminated food
rapid emptying of chyme from surgically created residual stomach into small intestine
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
Altered bowel pattern and abdominal pain with bloating
Acute inflammation caused by a hardened piece of feces, a worm, or enlarged lymph node
Chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract
Inflammation of the colon with the formation of ulcers
Autoimmune disease; antibodies against gliadin in gluten; flat villi cannot digest gluten
Herniations of the lining of the colon
Hernia of the Abdomen
Protrusion of an internal body structure through the abd wall.
Swollen, painful rectal veins; often a result of constipation, swollen, twisted varicose veins in the rectal region
What is the difference between diverticular disease and intestinal polyps? how are each DX and TX'd?
Diverticulitis is asymptomatic in which multiple diverticular are present in the colon but the patient has no complaints or mild discomfort
*Managed with dietary changes and surgery with advanced diverticulitis
*Symptoms - LLQ pain, cramping, tenderness, nausea and vomiting, low-grade fever
* Colon polyps often don't cause symptoms.
* have regular screening tests, such as a colonoscopy, because colon polyps found in the early stages can usually be removed safely and completely.
* best prevention for colon cancer is regular screening for polyps.
Identify and explain two disorders of the liver and gallbladder.
A. Cirrhosis: A chronic disease interfering with the normal functioning of the liver
B. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or a toxin
Describe the etiology signs and symptoms and treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (nash).
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD) is the accumulation of abnormal amounts of fat within the liver.
* Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding
* Mental changes (encephalopathy)
* accumulation of fluid (ascites, edema)
* Liver cancer
NASH usually requires a liver biopsy.
Treatments for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are:
* weight loss
* bariatric surgery
Summarize the diff between Celiac disease and gluten sensitivity.
With gluten sensitivity there is no indications it causes damage to the small intestine, they can have similar symptoms
Explain how ulcerative colitis is treated including possible surgical procedures
Surgery to remove the entire colon is called a Colectomy. Surgery to remove both the colon and rectum is a Proctocolectomy. Both can be used to treat Ulcerative colitis. These surgeries are also performed to eliminate the threat of colon cancer.
anatomy and physiology diagram
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