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refers to the landscape of that area, or the change in elevation to the surface represented by hills and valleys.
means the one unit of length on the map equals how ever many units of the Earth's Surface. Example: 1:24000
a line or bar that is divided to relate distances on the Earth's Surface to distances on the map.
parallels, lines drawn from E to W on the sufrace of the Earth. Measurd N and S from the 0 degree reference line, or Equator, which divides earth into northern and southern hemispheres--written with N or S after numerical measurement.
Merideans, are drawn from N to S on surface of theEarth. Measure E and W ofthe 0 degree reference line, or prime meridean--written with E or W after numerical measurement--E and W of Prime Meridean in Greenwich, England.
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