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A down to earth approach
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Which of the following communities would be most aligned with the rational approach to life?
a nineteenth-century steel mill town in Pennsylvania
What term best applies to people who share a culture and a territory?
a society
Which of the following is a primary sex characteristic?
a uterus in women
While the notion of gender refers to sociological characteristics, the concept of sex refers to ________ characteristics.
biological
Which sociologist coined the term "the power elite"?
C. Wright Mills
What was the specific Protestant theology that influenced Max Weber's theories of social change and the development of The Spirit of Capitalism?
Calvinism
Violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called ________.
crimes
What were the three major causes of slavery prior to life in the American colonies?
debt, crime, and war
Based on Weber's "ideal type," the perfect bureaucracy is one that has the most extensive hierarchical structure.
FALSE
Because of apartheid, South Africa has become a democratic nation with power more evenly shared by all citizens.
FALSE
Wealth and income are interchangeable terms, each meaning the same in reference to social class.
FALSE
In every society, from the hunting and gathering society to the postindustrial society, the most common basis for social stratification has been ________.
Gender
The term for the unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on a person's sex is ________.
gender stratification
In Professor Jones' social problems course, the students interact freely with one another, think of themselves as "Dr. J's class," and feel they are significant because of their mutual interest in social reform. Which concept best describes Dr. Jones' class?
group
In which two societies would someone find relationships based on history that are diffuse and long-term?
horticultural and agricultural societies
Sociologically, why is gender especially significant?
It is a master status cutting across all aspects of life.
In colonial America, immigrants were transported to the new world "on credit" by the captain of the ship, who then sold their services to wealthy colonists who paid their passage. In return, these immigrants worked for a specified period of time and were known as ________ or ________.
indentured servants; bonded laborers
The plow was to the second social revolution as the ________ was to the third social revolution.
invention of the steam engine
One of the first theorists to argue that the adoption of capitalism is responsible for the decline of traditional orientations to social life was ________.
Karl Marx
The early theorist who proposed that religious beliefs are the key to whether or not a society embraces capitalism was ________.
Max Weber
Why did the "XYY" chromosome theory fall out of favor as an explanation for criminal behavior?
Most criminals do not have XYY and everyone with XYY is not a criminal.
Suicide bombers in Iraq are accorded high praise by those who oppose an American presence in the Middle East and are considered heroic warriors. Such honor and praise is an example of a ________.
positive sanction
Although it is the most egalitarian, what was the one social division common to all hunting and gathering societies?
prestige based on male labor
An approach to life in which there is an emphasis on rules, efficiency, and practical results is ________.
rationality
What is a group's formal and informal means of enforcing norms called?
social control
A group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives, is called ________.
social order
The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige is referred to as ________.
social stratification
With the domestication of plants and animals, a number of significant social changes occurred. All of the following represent one of these changes, EXCEPT for which one?
societies became more egalitarian
Explanations for deviance that focus on genetic predispositions to explain why individuals commit deviant acts are most aligned with which discipline?
sociobiology
Erving Goffman used the term ________ to refer to characteristics that discredit people.
stigma
The relativity of deviance is most aligned with which sociological perspective?
symbolic interactionism
Weber discovered that countries dominated by the Roman Catholic faith were more likely to rely on the traditional orientation to life and less likely to embrace capitalism as an economic system.
TRUE
The dawn of civilization is most associated with the advent of the agricultural society.
TRUE
According to Marx, alienation refers to a worker's loss of ownership of the product of his or her labor.
TRUE
The predecessor to the modern union was the guild, which prevented non-guild members from working at a particular craft.
TRUE
According to Karl Marx, capitalism was responsible for breaking the bonds of tradition.
TRUE
Few of the U.S. presidents have come from a class of Americans who qualify as being members of the power elite.
TRUE
What is the major emphasis of the traditional orientation to life?
The past is the best guide for what should be done in the present.
Which statement regarding the nation's income is most accurate?
The top 20 percent of Americans earn nearly half the income.
In which of the following societies might slavery most likely exist?
the agricultural society
Napoleon Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamö tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of ________.
the cultural relativity of deviance
The belief by many Americans that they actually contribute to major governmental decisions through the power of their vote is referred to by Hellinger and Judd as ________.
the democratic facade
What was the impetus for the first social revolution?
the domestication of plants and animals
Which society was the first to develop permanent settlements?
the horticultural society
Which society is characterized as being the most egalitarian and nomadic, consisting of 25 to 40 members?
the hunting and gathering society
In which two societies are people evaluated based on "the bottom line"?
the industrial and postindustrial societies
What was the term C. Wright Mills used to refer to those who make the big decisions in American society?
the power elite
When used by sociologists, the term "wealth" refers to ________.
the property owned and the income acquired minus debts made by the person
What is the widespread acceptance of using rules, efficiency, and practical results to determine human affairs and the building of social organizations around this concept?
the rationalization of society
What are the two characteristics a people must share to qualify as a society?
the same culture and the same territory
Based on the Marxist orientation of conflict sociologists, how many distinct social classes exist?
two
What are the three variables Max Weber identified as defining social class?
wealth, power, prestige
What is the average per capita annual income in the United States, which includes all Americans, and even children?
$39,000
What is the typical annual family income in the United States?
$58,000
The first social revolution, namely the domestication of animals and plants, occurred approximately ________ years ago.
10,000