157 terms

Florida Professional Education Test

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educational objective
goals developed by a teacher, based on state standards which direct student learning
divergent question
a type of questioning that requires critical thinking, since it allows for students to generate multiple answers to a defined question
direct instruction
a teaching method in which the teacher provides knowledge by directly presenting it to students generally in the format of a lecture
deductive thinking
a method of reasoning that requires students to take one or more general statements and then work their way down to a more specific conclusion
cooperative learning
a student centered learning approach in which heterogeneously grouped students work cooperatively to accomplish a shared task
convergent question
a type of question that requires a student to "converge" on one answer. An example of a convergent question is "what is 4+2?" Generally, this type of questioning requires lower-level thinking skills
classroom management
planning and implementing methods to ensure that the learning environment of the classroom provides an effective venue for learning
choral reading
students read together, aloud, and in unison with the teacher to practice fluency.
Bruner
a psychologist who is known for his work in cognitive psychology and the cognitive learning theory
brain hemisphere
2 halves of the brain, left; controls right side of the body, more academic, logical side of the brain. right; controls left side of the body, artistic, and creative side of the brain.
bloom's taxonomy
a classification of learning objectives proposed by Benjamin Bloom in 1956. It is used to classify educational goals. revised; remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating. old; knowledge, comp, application, analysis,synthesis, and evaluation
acronym
a word formed from the first initials of a title or phrase
text marking
the practice of highlighting important details and main ideas in the text as a component of article reading
semantics
the study of words and their meanings
print concept
the realization that books have front and back covers, that the words start at the top of the page and progress from left to right, and that as you finish a line of text, you move on to the next line.
pragmatics
how context contributes to the meaning of a word
graphic organizer
a visual tool for organizing knowledge
individual educational program
a written document that is developed through a team effort for each public school child who is eligible for special education and reviewed at least once a year
individualized instruction
instructional strategies that are tailored to a student's specific learning style
inductive thinking
a method of reasoning that requires students to take specific facts and use them to develop a general conclusion
instructional objective
the educational goal of the lesson; specifically, what a teacher wants the students to know at the conclusion of the lesson
learning styles
the way in which a student recognizes and processes info in the context of an educational setting. the seven learning styles are visual, aural, verbal, physical, logical, social, and solitary
lecture
a type of teacher centered direct instruction where the teacher gives info while the students take notes
modality preference
the way a child prefers to learn
modeled reading
a method where the teachers reads aloud a book above students reading level. may or may not have a copy of the text to follow along. purpose: to demonstrate a skill or ability such as fluency.
multiple intelligences
defined by Howard Garner; 7 intelligences
paired reading
students work in pairs, taking turns reading aloud a section of text in order to build fluency skills
planning
the process of designing the method of instruction used to teach a learning objective and the way to assess the mastery of the objective
prior knowledge
previously acquired knowledge that applies to the current lesson
problem-based learning
a method of student-centered learning where the students work individually or cooperatively to solve a problem
simulation
a tool which focuses on imitating the operation of a real world process or system
standards
agreed upon values used to measure the quality of student performance, instructional methods, curriculum, etc.
accommodation
a change in the way a student learns new materials (IEP)
assistive technology
any assistive, adaptive, and rehab device that one uses to provide accommodations for students with disabilities
Bandura
Believed learning occurs without direct consequences to one's actions.
bullying
using superior strength or social status to intimidate or influence the decisions of another person
cyberbullying
bullying that occurs online, primarily on social media sites
database
a collection of information that is organized and stored on a computer to provide an easy method for accessing data
discrimination
the unfair treatment of another individual based on race, gender, socioeconomic status, or age
extinction
the practice of ignoring an undesired behavior in the hopes that it becomes extinct on its own
EXTRINSIC motivation
motivation through the use of external rewards.
high-traffic areas
paths that students often travel in the classrooms, such as where they line up to leave the room and the path to frequently used supplies
intellectual property
a work that is personally created by an individual.can be copyrighted.
intrinsic motivation
motivation that comes from an internal source such as self-motivation
modification
a change in the curriculum's learning requirements due to a student's inability to master the required state standards
negative reinforcement
a method of influencing behavior through removing an adverse stimulant in order to strengthen a behavior
parlov
noble-prize winning Russian psychologist known for his work in classical conditioning: relationships between behavior and direct rewards.
positive reinforcement
anything added in order to cause an increase in behavior
premack principle
pairs undesirable behaviors with desirable acts and is employed frequently to introduce students to encourage in the formers
punishers
punishments decreases the likelihood a behavior is repeated,provided it is not reinforcing in some way, such as, giving a violator status with peers
Skinner
An american psychologist and behaviorist known for his theory of operant conditioning which states that a behavior is controlled by the consequence that follows it
Thorndike
A behavioral theorist who focused on the law of effect and believed that behaviors which result in favorable consequences are likely to be repeated and behaviors that result in unfavorable are unlikely to be repeated.
transitions
the times of switching from one classroom activity to another
wait time
the time between when a teacher asks a question and calls on a student
critical thinking
the process students use to reflect on, assess, and judge the assumptions underlying their own and other's ideas and efforts
creative thinking
the process students use to develop ideas that are unique, useful, and worthy of further collaboration
differentiation
structured learning environments that address the variety of learning styles, interests, and abilities, found within a classroom
effective feedback
timely specific communication provided to students based on growth and development
elaboration
the ability of a student to develop critical thinking skills which lead to the skill of developing ideas
encapsulation
the process of stating ideas in a precise, concise form
flexibility
the ability of a student to categorize ideas
metacognition
the knowledge of one's own thinking processes and strategies and the ability to consciously reflect and act on the knowledge of cognition to modify those processes and strategies
mind mapping
a method of visual note-taking that helps students organize info into unique and personal ways
originality
a focus area for developing critical-thinking skills that emphasizes combining ideas in new ways or coming up with unusual ideas
visualization
an instructional strategy which opens up student thinking by using sensory info to stimulate imagination with both spoken and written words.
achievement tests
standardized test designed to efficiently measure the amount of knowledge and or skill person has acquired, usually as a result of classroom instruction
alternative assesment
produce work rather than select an answer
analytic scoring
rubric scoring that separates the whole into categories of criteria that are examined one at a time
anecdotal records
type of informal eval. records observations of student performance and over time they can see patterns of growth
assessment
process of observing learning, describing, collecting, recording, scoring, and interpreting info
authentic assessment
evaluating by asking for the behavior then learning is intending to produce; ideally mirroring and measuring student performance in a "real-world" context
benchmark
student performance standards; an actual measurements of group performance against an established standard at defined points along the path toward the standard
cognitive objective
learning objective that has 3 main components; condition, behavior, and degree
competency test
intended to establish that a student has met the min. standards of skills and is thus eligible for promotion, graduation, etc.
constructive response questions
question that requires students to construct/create something to answer the question rather than choosing from a given list.
criterion-referenced test
determine students progress in master of content area; compared to an expected level rather than to other students.
curriculum alignment
the degree to which a curriculum's scope matches a testing program's evaluation measures
evaluation
qualitative and quantitative descriptions of progress towards and alignment of the projected goals.
formative assessment
assessment occurring during the process of a unit/course
high-stakes testing
testing program whose results have important consequences for students, teachers, schools, and/or districts
holistic method
single score based on overall assessment rather than scoring dimensions individually
item analysis
analyzing every item on a test; can help determine test validity or student strengths and weaknesses
journal
students personal records and reactions to various aspects of learning and developing ideas
measurement
quantitative description of student learning and qualitative description of student altitude
metacognition
the knowledge of one's own thinking process and strategies and the ability to consciously reflect and act on the knowledge of cognition to modify those processes and situations.
norm
a distribution of scores obtained from a norm group (midpoint)`
norm groups
random group of students selected by a test developer to take a test and provide a range of scores
norm-referenced test
test composed to that of the norm group
objective test
test for which the scoring procedure is completely specified enabling agreement among different scorers
outcome
an operationally defined educational goal
percentile
scale ranging from 1-99 w/ 50 as the middle
performance criteria
standards by which student performance is evaluated
performance-based assessment
test the ability to apply knowledge in a real-life setting
portifio
collection of student work that exhibits direct evidence of the student's achievement and progress
product
tangible and stable result of a performance or task
profile
graphic complication of the performance of an individual on a series of assessments
quartile
break down of percentile rankings in the 4th (0-25, 26-50)
reliability
measure of consistency
rubric
scoring guides in subjective assessments
scale scores
scale ranging from 001-999. good for comparing performance in 1 subject across classes, schools, and districts
scoring criteria
rules for assigning a score
standardized test
objective test that is given and scored in an uniform manner and carefully constructed
subjective test
in which the impression or opinion of the assessor determines the score or evaluation of performance
summative test
evaluation at the end of a unit
validity
the degree to which a test measures the desired performance and appropriate inferences can be drawn from the results
action research
a reflective process of researching instructional methods based on student scores and the teachers observations
code of ethics
the set of standards that apply to ethical decision-making within the field of education in the state of Florida
correlational research
the statistical association between 2 or more variables that used to determine the relationship between the variables
experimental research
independent variables is manipulated and its efforts on other variables is measured
individual needs assessment
educator identifies individual professional learning goals
principles of professional conduct
outline the appropriate conduct, parameters, and repercussions for educators in the state of Florida.
professional learning communities
group of educators who act as reflective practitioners, analyzing student data in order to improve instructional methods
qualitative research
research that is based on un-measurable qualities such as observations
quantitative research
based on measurable data like test scores
reflective practitioner
educator who reflects on instructional practices and self-evaluates the effectiveness of the instruction being provided
school advisory council
group composed on principal, elected students, teachers, parents, and community members who develop the annual school improvement plan.
school improvement plan
plan to improve school in a specific area; such as math scores
school needs assessment
school identifies professional learning needs through classroom-by classroom analysis
simple descriptive research
data is collected to describe persons, organizations, settings, or phenomena.
site license
documentation that outlines the privacy rights of publishers
florida abuse hotline
the communication tool utilizes by educators to report suspected abuse
office of professional practice services
department which provides follow-up and accountability for educators based on the code of ethics and principles of professional conduct
self-report
term which focuses on the responsibility of an educator to alert public authorities of an arrest
acquisition-learning method
2 ways to learn a language: steadily absorb it or intentionally study it
affective filter hypotheses
emotional factors affect the ability to learn another language. dealing with anxiety in a classroom can prevent learning
basic interpersonal communication skills
vocab student uses to carry on social conversations
cognates
words from different languages that have the same meaning and similar pronunciations and spelling
dual immersion programs
students learning English are placed with students who are fluent in English
home language survey
initial questionnaires given to ALL incoming Florida students
input hypothesis
belief that in order to challenge a student, the teacher needs to give them work slightly above their ability
Lev Vygotsky
Educational theorist known for his social cultural theory that stresses the importance of social interactions on learning.
limited English proficiency
non-native English speakers
mainstream/inclusion
ESOL program--> non-English working with English speakers
monitor hypothesis
if grammatical rules are learned, written and spoken will follow
multicultural education
educational approach that focuses on: content integration, knowledge construction, equity pedagogy, prejudice reduction and empowerment of school culture
native language
language spoken regularly at home
scaffolding
the practice of providing sufficient assistance to a student in order to facilitate learning
sheltered english approach
program for ELL where classes only include LEP students ; instruction is still in English
stages of 2nd language acquistion
stages in which a second language is acquired. stages are pre-production, early production, speech emergent, and intermediate fluency
Steven Krashen
Educational activist who is famous for his contributions to the field of second language acquisition, bilingual education, and reading
submersion
the practice of submerging an English language learner in a mainstream classroom with no teacher support. Sink or swim approach
total physical response
a technique that pains repetitive physical movement with vocab
phonemic awareness
a subset of phonological awareness. a child with phonemic awareness can hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes.
phonemes
the smallest units of sound, which one blended to create words
onset
the beginning sound in a word
grapho-phonemic awareness
alphabetic principle
fluency
the ability to read with precision, speed, and the proper pronunciation.
encoding
turning messages into symbols which could include something as simple as translating spoken language into text or as advanced as converting math word problems into an equation
denotation
the literal meaning of a word
decoding
a component of fluency that requires students to convert letters into words
connotation
the implied meaning of a word based on its content
blending
a component of fluency that requires students to blend together phonemes, the smallest units of sound, to form words
automaticaity
the ability to see a word, decode it, and automatically understand its meaning
alphabetical principle
graphophonemic awareness; refers to the fact that each individual sound has a graphical representation of individual letters or letter blends
whole language approach
a method of language instruction that is integrated in which listening, speaking, reading, and writing are used along with other instructional strategies to build proficiency.
transfer
the idea that students from the same cultural background may share common knowledge with each other. this knowledge would be unknown to students from other cultures
adolescent literacy support framework
a literacy structure focused on motivation, literacy strategies, "across the curriculum" and organizational support
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