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Human Development/Life Stages
Terms in this set (31)
Rapidly developing egg from conception to 2 weeks
Developing human organism from 2 to 8 weeks that begins taking on a human-like form, and attaches to the uterine wall. Cell specialization occurs, and the placenta is created.
Human from 9 weeks to birth that has an unmistakable human form that develops more complex systems in preparation for leaving the womb
Any chemical, virus, or bacteria that reaches the embryo/fetus and causes developmental harm
A baby will turn its mouth to something presented near its cheek
A baby will suck on anything entering its mouth
A baby will grasp its fingers around anything encountered on its palm or foot pads (AKA Grasping Reflex)
A baby will flail its arms and legs when startled and then retract them (AKA Startle Reflex)
A baby will spread its toes when its foot is stroked
Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior. Based on innate timing factors(genetics!). There is a threshold of ability that must be reached before moving on. Explains why infants first sit up, then crawl, then walk. Varies slightly from child to child.
Inability to directly remember anything about your life before the age of 4 (approximately). Believed to be caused by the fact that our brains work much differently now than they did when we were four.
Transition period from childhood to adulthood. Typically extends from puberty to independence.
Primary Sex Characteristics
Body structures that make sexual reproduction possible
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Non-reproduction sexual characteristics such as hair growth, breast growth, acne, voice deepening, etc.
Growth and maturation of body parts occurs unevenly
Early Blooming Girls
May be embarrassed at first, date older boys, and boss late blooming girls around. Tendency to be more popular initially.
Early Blooming Boys
Seen as more mature/adult-like, tend to have more self confidence, popularity, and independence
Late Blooming Girls
Tend to get along with peers more easily, may have self image and self confidence issues early on while they catch up
Late Blooming Boys
May be envious or feel inadequate. Tendency to rebel or withdraw; slower to mentally/behaviorally mature
Teenagers and Poor Decision Making
The frontal lobe (home to decision making skills, maturity, and morality) is not fully developed until about age 25. Explains why teens tend to make poor decisions.
IQ and Age
Cross sectional studies indicate that IQ does decrease as a person ages (does not take into account that there are differences between generations, such as emphasis on education)
Longitudinal studies indicate that IQ stays relatively permanent, with little IQ loss in certain areas and some IQ gain in others. (accepted norm)
Stage in a woman's life (around age 45 - 50) when the menstrual cycle ceases and a woman's biological ability to conceive drops sharply. Men do not experience a steep decline like this; their sperm count and sexual performance decline gradually.
Aging of the Brain
As one ages, the brain begins to shrink in both weight and interneurons. Exercise can delay interneuron loss because it encourages blood flow and nutrients back into the brain.
Gradual mental erosion that occurs as one ages. Some mental erosion is normal; early onset or excessive erosion is not good.
Type of dementia that is NOT considered normal because of the amount of memory loss (forgetting big things, like your children's names or where you live). Has been linked to deficiencies of acetylcholine (a neruotransmitter).
Culturally preferred timing of events or achievements such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
Indicator of a successful marriage. Ratio of 5 positive interactions for every negative experience.
Empty Nest Syndrome
Tendency for parents (especially mothers) to feel a void of emptiness and perhaps mild depression after the last child has left the home
A time span around the ages of 40-50 when people redirect their life choices. Often leads to a work change, lifestyle change, or personal image change as an individual redefines themselves.
Studied death and how it affects the dying person as well as the people surrounding them. Came up with the 5 stages of grief.
5 Stages of Grief
3) Bargaining (often with doctors or God)
4) Depression (finally facing the problem)
5) Acceptance (allows you to enjoy life)
*not everyone goes through all five stages, and they may occur in a different order, depending on the person
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Historic and Modern Schools of Thought
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