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History of Massage
Terms in this set (116)
Galen (129 - 200 ce) was a
greek physician who used massage and hydrotherapy
in Swedish gymnastic, this type of movement was performed under the direction of an attendant and was basically an exercise routine
Hippocrates (460-377 BCE) is widely regarded as
The "Father of western medicine"
Define the term: National Certification Board for Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork
an organization providing certification, education, and information to massage and bodywork students and practitioners
Who was Ibn Sina (980-1037 CE)?
An Arab physician and philosopher (980-1037 CE) who brought together and organized existing medical knowledge from the Romans, greeks, and India in a monumental
In the early history (3500 BCE or before) of many cultures, little distinction was made between
The health of the body and health of the spirit
American Massage Therapy Association
A nonprofit, professional association serving massage therapists, massage student, and massage schools
Who was Ida Rolf (1896-1979)?
An american biochemist working in the 1940s who extensively researched musculoskeletal components and developed structural interation
Define the term: Arab medicine
After the fall of Rome in the 5th century, the arabs preserved Greek and Roman medical knowledge and integrated it with their own understanding. By the 9th century, the Arabs had well-developed pharmacies and an advanced understanding of herbal medicine. Al- Razi (865-925 CE) and Ibna Sina
Define the term: Ayurveda
The traditional medical system of India that developed in India and Sri Lanka more than 5,000 years ago and was written in four texts called "The Vedas." The "Rig Veda," compiled from an earlier oral history between 1700 and 1100 BCE, outlines the main concepts in Ayurveda includes a strong emphasis on manual therapies and massage
Define the term: Roman baths
The Romans had a highly developed knowledge of hydrotherapy (healing with water) motivated by a desire to maintain a healthy army. Garrisons were build around hot springs so that soldiers could heal their battle wounds. Over time, medical baths became popular with the public and incorporated massage therapy, exercise, and social interaction. By the 5th century, there were 900 baths in Rome enjoyed by all classes of citizens.
Define the term Asclepius
The Greek god of healing ( also known as Asklepios) depicted with a staff and single snake that is used today as a part of the American Medical Association crest
Define the term: Massage Therapy Foundation
An organization that promotes research on the benefits of massage, spreads knowledge, and encourages community outreach
Define the term Special Population
Any client base for which a particular type of massage or specific massage adaptations has been developed to serve specific needs
Ayurveda is the traditional medical system of
China`s medical systems were developed some 5,000 years ago and led to the formation of:
Traditional Chinese medicine
What is the Touch Research institute?
An organization founded by American psychologist Tiffany Field in 1992 to scientifically prove the befits of massage
Define the term: Esalen Institute
A center for the exploration of human potential that included spiritual practices like mediation, Buddhism, and yoga, as well as massage and bodywork. It was founded by Michael Murphy and Dick Price in 1962 in Big Sur, California, and is still running as massage school and human potential center today.
Define the term: Holistic health care
A system of medicine that seeks to address the needs of the whole person, not just symptoms or disease, and integrates complimentary and conventional medicine practices
Who was Hippocrates? (460-377 BCE)
An early Greek physician, widely regarded as the "father of Western medicine," because he based his practice on observation, extensive study of anatomy, and rational explanations of symptoms and underlying causes
The Egyptians documented their medical practices on a type of paper called:
Who is Tiffany Field?
An American psychologist who founded the Touch research Institute in 1992 to scientifically prove the benefits of massage
Define the term: Human potential movement
A Spiritual and alternative health movement promoted at the Esalen Institute in California in the 1960s. The movement believed that humans have a large store of untapped creative and intellectual potential that can be improved through spiritual practice and bodywork
Who was Janet Travell (1901-1997)
An American physician who had a special interest in musculoskeletal pain and developed a number of methods for treating muscle pain in her extensive work on trigger points. "The trigger point manual" (that she co-wrote in 1968) continues to profoundly influence massage today
In the early history (3500 BCE or before) of many cultures around the world medicine was closely associated with:
Magic, superstition and ritual
The "Ebers Papyrus" is important to medical history because it:
Demonstrates Egypt's advanced understanding of anatomy and pathology
Many cultures had a version of a medicine man, healer, shaman, witch, midwife, or witch doctor who worked to:
Remove "evil" influences that caused disease
In ancient Rome, massage was a highly regarded practice at:
Documentation of early Native American healers demonstrates that they were skilled:
Define the term: Wellness-oriented massage
A massage provided to decrease stress, promote relaxation, and support the body's natural restorative mechanisms. It is often provided in environments like spas to facilitate stress reduction and wellness
Define the term: Traditional Chinese medicine
The medical system of China developed more than 5,000 years ago
Define the term: Associated Bodywork and Massage Professionals
The premiere membership association serving the massage and bodywork profession; ABMP provides comprehensive liability insurance, educational tools, and support to massage professionals, students, instructors, and schools. ABMP also created this program!
Who was John Harvey Kellog (1852-1943)
An American physician who embraced massage as part of a healthy lifestyle and wrote "The art of Massage, Its Physiological Effects and Therapeutic Applications, " which outlined the mechanical, reflexive, and metabolic effects of massage on different body systems
Who was Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564 CE)?
A Flemish anatomist, born in Brussels, who wrote "On the workings of the Human Body" in 1543 and corrected many of the anatomical assertions made by Galen
Passive treatment in this massage system includes terms like effleurage, petrissage, and tapotment
Devine the term: conventional medicine
Medicine that is commonly practiced in hospitals or by medical professionals using drugs and surgery as primary interventions
Who was Johann Mezger (1838-1909)
A dutch physician who provided the names for passive soft-tissue manipulation in Swedish massage
One key textbook of ayurvedic medicine is:
Iba Sina (often called Avicenna) brough together and organized existing medical knowledge from the Romans, Greeks, and India in manuscript titled:
"Canon of medicine"
During the 17th and 18th centuries, advances in the physical sciences (especially the popularity of exercise as a means of healing) led to:
The Swedish movements
Define the term: Federation of state Massge
An organization that supports state massage boards in creating consistent and coherent licensing of massage therapists
What has been the role of nurses in massage history
From the 1920s to the 1950s, nurses- influenced by the work fo Florence Nightingale- promoted the use of massage in hospitals and wrote numerous books about massage therapy. Important nurses that influenced massage include Louisa Despard, Nellie Macafee, and Mary McMillan
Define the term bodywork
A broad term that refers to many forms, methods, and styles of therapy (including massage) that positively influence the body through touch
This practitioner is considered the founder of psychotherapeutic body therapies, sometimes called body-mind therapy or somatic therapy:
One of the primary reasons contemporary clients seek out massage therapy is for:
Who was Mondino de Liuzzi (1275-1326 CE)?
An Italian anatomist and author who systemized dissection and publish a manual called "Anathomia" 91315), which became a medical textbook that was used by schools for three centuries
Define the term: Abhyanga
The Sanskrit word for oil massage in the Ayurvedic medical system of India
The key proponent of Swedish gymnastics for health was
Per Henrik Ling
Define the term client
The person receiving the service of professional massage or bodywork
Important early textbooks on Chinese medicine include;
"Yellow Emperor`s Classic of internal medicine
From which civilization is massage therapy said to originate?
Which civilization created reflexology ?
Tuina was originally created for which form of massage
Janet Travell is credited for researching and developing which modality?
Polarity therapy is associated with which of the following categories?
Energy massage. The basic theory of polarity therapy is based upon the foundation that good health begins with balancing the three human energy fields. The fields are long line currents, transverse currents and spiral currents
Which of the following therapies directly focuses on the membranes and the cerebrospinal fluid of the spinal cord and brain?
Cranial sacral therapy
Who developed myofascial release therapy
John Barnes developed his unique approach to bodywork in the 1960's and began teaching his techniques to the world during the 1970's. His dedication and insights into the world of physical therapy and bodywork has enriched both communities and his techniques of myofascial release therapy has helped and inspired thousands since first introduced
From which culture does ayurveda originate from?
Who authored, "the art of massage: a practice manual for the Nurse, the student, and the practitioner?
John harvey Kellogg was an american M.D. who taught a holistic approach to health care. He is also the man that created Kellogg's corn flakes
Who is credited with originally teaching the importance of deep transverse friction
Dr. James Cyriax
Rolfing was first named _____
What best describes Hellerwork?
How many meridians are a part of the acupressure system/
What does ayurveda specifically mean?
What part of the body does an ashiatsu practitioner utilize the most during treatment ?
What best describes mentastics?
Free flowing movement
Receptor-tonus technique is also known as a form of
Trigger point. In the early 1950's, chiropractor Raymond L. Nimmo theorized that noxious generative points (aka trigger points) where maintained via an abnormal neural reflex arc involved the spinal cord. His receptor tonus technique relied on manual pressure (ischemic compression) to disrupt the reflex arc to reduce or eliminate the pattern of tension
What technique is best to stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system?
Jack meagher is recognized for developing which of the following modalities?
Pressure point therapy, a physical therapist that worked on both people and horses, is credited with coining the term and treatment of pressure point therapy
Who is credited with reintroducing massage into the medical profession ?
Sir william Bennet reintroduced massage techniques to fellow surgeons in London as a treatment modality for fractures and for relief of spasmodic muscular pain. In 1989, he created the massage therapy department at St. George's Hospital in. London
Who wrote the book Massage, it's principles and practice?
James B. Mennel wrote the book Massage, It's principles and practice in 1917 while he served as medical officer and lecturer of massage at the training school of St. Thomas's hospital in London, England
Who created Connective Tissue therapy based upon his or her own experience of self healing?
Elizabeth Dicke contracted a systemic infection that led to gangrene in her right leg. She also suffered from angina as well as gastric, kidney and liver problems that were so severe that the doctors could not amputate her infected leg. Elizabeth was set aside to die an agonzing death/. Suffering from lower back pain, she chose to provide self massage and noticed sensations that referred down her leg. Over the course off a few months and with the help of her colleagues providing manual therapy, she was able to fully recover. From this experience she developed a protocol for massage, referred to as connective tissue therapy ?
What does the bates Lye system directly focus on ?
What aspect of the body does rebirthing directly focus on for healing?
Breath, rebirthing practitioners believe that the breath is the ultimate healer in an individual. Through an orchestration of breathing techniques, a person is said to reach the diving within themselves to relieve any areas of stagnation, be they physical or emotional
Which technique did Ute Arnold develop?
Unergi, a body therapy that integrates psychotherapy within the therapy session to resolve tension patterns and emotional issue
General fear, lack of discipline and restlessness is a deficient trait of which chakra?
Root chakra is the foundation of all spiritual development. If a person is experiencing issues of fear, or lack of discipline they are stuck in their root chakra
What color is associated with the throat chakra ?
Blue is the color most associated with the throat chakra. However, it is sometimes drawn with a bluish white center violet petals
Which chakra is identified with the ego?
Solar plexus or naval chakra, also known as Manipura or city of jewels, is associated with self esteem, the power of transformation, warrior energy and ego
Which chakra is related to intuition and imagination?
The third eye
Which chakra is known for enlightenment?
The crown chakra
What is the indian term for term for meridians?
What does the term Prana mean?
Which chakra is associated with the color orange?
Sacral chakra located below the naval is the second chakra and is associated with the color orange
Which of the following best describes the term Dharma?
Which best describes Marmas?
Where does the lung meridians end?
Tip of thumb
Yang and yin concepts relate to the delicate balance of life. Which of the following is a yang organ?
In TCM, the triple burner is also called the
In TCM, which organs is associated with the element of fire
Heart, Small Intestines, Pericardium
In TCM, which organs is associated with the element of earth?
In TCM, which of the following organs is associated with the element of water?
Kidney, Urinary Bladder
In TCM, which organs is associated with the element of metal?
Lung, large intestine
In TCM, which organs is associated with wood?
Which of the following is Not a part of the five elements in TCM theory?
Metal, wood, wind, earth
Which of the following trait of yang in tcm?
Fire, yang is considered bright, masculine, active, energetic and fiery. Yin, is the opposite of yang and would be dark, feminine, restful, solid and water in comparison
With regards to dermatomes, what area of the body feeds the trigeminal nerve with sensory information
face, Dermatomes are areas of theb ody that feed or are supplied by a single spinal nerve. The dermatome region for the trigeminal nerve is the entire face
Who wrote and published "technic Der Massage" in year 1900?
Dr. Albert Hoffa, a german othropedist, physiotherapist and surgeon developed a system of massage therapy he titled the "Hoffa system" which addressed various physiological disorders including knee and hip pain
Which is the first massage association founded in the U.S.?
New York State of medical massage therapist
In what year was sports massage officially offered to athletes by professional massage therapist during the modern olympics?
What technique uses any part of the body to apply a direct therapeutic force onto a client ?
Which of the following massage styles was developed in Hawaii?
Lomi is a Hawaiian massage technique of long, flowing gentle but firm strokes integrated with the practitioner vocalizing prayer for the client
Who developed Neuromuscular therapy?
Dr. Stanley Leif in the 1930's to address soft tissue abnormalities with an advanced system of assessments and treatments that repeat until issues are resolved
In approximately which year was Tuina first recorded as a therapeutic modality?
1700 B.C. Tuna dates back to the Shang Dynasty of China around 1700 B.C. In current times Tuina is used to treat people of all ages by balancing the flow of qi
The "Tomb of the Physician" is an imporatant part of history of massage. What region of the world is this located?
Egypt, is located in formally known as Tomb of Akmanthor who is the creator of reflexology
Where was the first known gymnasium to promote exercise and massage located?
Greece, Although the first gymnasiums originated in ancient Persia, it was the Greeks who were the first to promote health through exercise and massage
Who is the author of the exercise and massage text, "De Arte Gymnastica"
Girolamo Mercuriale philologist and physician included the benefits of exercise and massage in the text, De Arte gymnastica
Who introduced "The Swedish Movement Cure" to the united states?
Dr. George Taylor has studied massage techniques based on the works of Per Henrik Ling and developed "The swedish movement cure" which he promoted at his health clinic in New York during that 1860's
What was the original name of the American Massage Therapy Association (AMTA)?
AMTA was originally established in Chicago as The American association of Masseurs and Masseuses in 1943
where is the Rolf Institute located?
Ida Rolf established the Rolf Insitute in 1971 in Boulder Colorado
A massage therapist has given three one hour massages and is starting to feel strain in his lower back. hat is the most likely cause?
Over extending. A common problem for massage therapist is physical stress and strain on the practitioner's body. This is usually caused by the therapist overreaching or overextending his massage stroke which places unnecessary stress upon the lower back
When a massage practitioner is in a horse stance, her feet are placed so that one is pointed forward in the direction of force and the other is turned slightly outward and used as a stabilizer T/F
What technique uses deep, non-gliding, oil-less strokes administered with a braced thumb or finer moving across the grain of a muscle, tendon or ligament?
Cross fiber friction
Which of the following techniques would engage the vestibular system?
Acupressure is based on which modality?
Shiatsu, acupressure is the American version of the ancient healing art of Shiatsu
From where did the massage technique Tschanpua orginate?
Tschanpua originates in India and is written in the "Laws of Man" which date back to 300BC Tschanpua translates to "massage in the bath" and is protocol for cleansing and massaging the head and body
Who is the persian philosopher and physician who revitalized the healing methods of ancient greece including the use of massage as a form of healthcare?
Rhazes shared the teaching of exercise, diet and massage from the ancient greek
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