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57 terms

Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 5

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axial skeleton
the bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body
appendicular skeleton
bones of the liimbs and girldels
skeletal system
includes bones, joints, cartilages and ligaments
functions of the bone
support- forms an internal framework; protection- protect the soft organs; movement- attached to bones and tendons, use the bones as levers to move the body and its parts; storage- sores fats and other minerals and nutrients; blood cell formation- hematopiesis occurs within the marrow cavities
compact bone
dense and looks smooth and homogeneous
spongey bone
composed of small needlelike pieces of bone and lots of open space
long bones
long and wide, have shaft with heads at both ends, mostly compact bone; limbs, wrist, ankle
short bones
cube-shaped bones, mostly spongey bone; sesamoid bones (form within tendons), patella
flat bones
thin, flattened, curved, compact bone with spongey bone in the middle; skull, ribs, sternum
irregular bones
vertebrae, hips
diaphysis
shaft, makes up most the bones length and composed of compact bone
periosteum
fibrous connective tissue membrane
perforating/ Sharpey's fibers
secure the periosteum to the underlying bone, hundreds of connective tissue fibers
epiphyese
the ends of the long bone- then layer of compact bone enclosing spongy bone
articular cartilage
covers external surfaces, glassy hyaline cartilage, provides smooth surfaces that decrease friction at joint surfaces
epiphyseal plate
hyaline cartlage seen in growing bone, cause the lengthwise growth of long bone, when bone is fully grown the plate is replaced by bone
yellow marrow/ medullary cavity
the cavity of a shaft that is a storage area for adipose tissue
red marrow
the cavity of an infant shaft that forms blood cells; adults is confined to cavities of spongy
osteocytes
mature bone cells, found within the matrix in tiny cavities
tuberosity
large rounded projections; may be roughened
crest
narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent
trochanter
very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process
line
narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest
tubercle
small, rounded projection or process
epicondyle
raised area on or above on condyle
spine
sharp, slender, often pointed porjection
process
any bony prominence
head
bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
facet
smooth, nearly flat articular surface
ramus
armlike bar of bone
condyle
rounded articular projection
metus
canal like passage way
sinus
cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane
fossa
shallow basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface
groove
furrow
fissure
narrow, slitlike opening
foramen
round or oval opening through a bone
ossification
process of bone formation- 1.hyaline cartilage is covered with bone matrix by bone-forming cells (osteoblasts) 2. hyaline cartilage is digested away
appositional growth
bone increasing in diameter
osteclasts
bone-destroying cells, releases calcium
hypercalcemia
blood calcium levels are too high
comminuted fracture
bone breaks into many pieces
compression fracture
bone is crushed
depressed fracture
broke bone portion is pressed inward
impacted fracture
broke bone ends are forced into each other
spiral
ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone
greenstick fracture
bone breaks incompletely, much in way a green twig breaks
skull
facial bones and cranium
cranium
frontal bone, parietal bone (2), occipital bone, sphenoid bone, ethmoid bone
frontal bone
forms the for head
parietal bones
superior and lateral walls of the cranium
sagittal suture
connects the parietal bones, the midline of the skull
coronal suture
connects the parietal bones to the frontal bones
temporal bones
lie inferior to the to the parietal bones
squamous suture
join temporal bone and parietal bones horizontally
external acoustic meatus
canal that leads to the ear drum, where sound enters
styloid process
sharp projection inferior to the external auditory meatus