HAZMAT First Responder Operational (FRO)
Terms in this set (86)
Class 1 (Hazard Class)
Any substance, article or device designed to function by explosion (extremely rapid release of gas and heat).
Class 2 (Hazard Class)
-GASES (FLAMMABLE or POISONOUS)-
Flammable Gas: Ignitable at low concentrations (<13%)
Compressed Gas: Shipped at > 41psia
Poisonous Gas: Toxic to humans of hazardous to health (or LC50 of not more than 5000 ml/m3 for laboratory animals). (i.e. toxic in low concentrations)
Class 3 (Hazard Class)
-FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS-
Flammable Liquid: Flash point < 141 F
Combustible Liquid: Flash point > 141 F
Class 4 (Hazard Class)
Explosives shipped with sufficient wetting agent to suppress explosive properties. (or), substance that can ignite if in contact with air <5 minutes. (or), substance that gives off flammable or toxic vapors or is spontaneously flammable upon contact with water.
Class 5 (Hazard Class)
-OXIDIZERS AND ORGANIC PEROXIDES-
A material that can cause or enhance the combustion of other materials (usually by giving up oxygen)
Class 6 (Hazard Class)
-POISONOUS AND INFECTIOUS MATERIAL-
Toxic to humans, hazardous to human health or presumed toxic to humans based upon tests on laboratory animals.
Class 7 (Hazard Class)
Substance with specific activity > 0.002 micro-curies per gram.
Class 8 (Hazard Class)
Substance that causes visible destruction of irreversible alterations in human skin tissue or a liquid that has a severe corrosion rate on steel or aluminum.
Class 9 (Hazard Class)
-MISC. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS-
Material with anesthetic, noxious or similar property that could cause extreme annoyance or discomfort to flight crew and prevent performance of assigned duties. Does not meet the definition of any other class..
None (Hazard Class)
Other regulated material (ORM-D)
ERG Page (White)
Basic information and instructions (+placard table)
ERG Page (Yellow)
ID number index (materials listed by ID number)
ERG Page (Blue)
Material name index (materials listed alphabetically)
ERG Page (Orange)
Numbered guide pages.
ERG Page (Green)
Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Actions.
Two major elements of Hazmat problem include:
1. Volume of hazardous materials, and
2. The human factor.
Hazmat "events" can pose what 3 primary risks?
Hazmat "events" can pose what 3 negative outcomes?
(in that order)
Hazmat events are different from other emergencies in what 3 ways?
Definition of hazardous material (no one definition):
DOT: ...substance or material...capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property when transported in commerce...
True or False: Responders should always think of multiple hazards regardless of how a substance is placarded or labeled?
Hazmat Commons - "Common release"
Petroleum products (diesel or gasoline)
Hazmat Commons - "Common release locations"
Hazmat Commons - "Common release factor"
Hazmat Typicals - "Responder exposure"
Hazmat Typicals - "Number of response agencies"
Hazmat Typicals - "Typical response problem"
Poor response management
Define First Responder at the "Awareness" level
One likely to witness/discover a hazmat release and can initiate notifying authorities and take no further action.
Define First Responder at the "Operations" level
One who responds to hazmat release to protect nearby persons, environment or property (trained to act in a defensive fashion without trying to actually stop the release as could a "Technician")
Hazmat Tactical Operations Acronym
SIN CIA PCP DDD
Hazmat Tactical Operations - SIN
(S) - Safety
(I) - Isolation & Deny Entry
(N) - Notifications
Hazmat Tactical Operations - CIA
(C) - Command/Management
(I) - Identification & Hazard Assessment
(A) - Action Planning
Hazmat Tactical Operations - PCP
(P) - Protective Equipment
(C) - Containment & Control
(P) - Protective Actions
Hazmat Tactical Operations - DDD
(D) - Decontamination & Cleanup
(D) - Disposal
(D) - Documentation
What is IDHA?
Identification & Hazard Assassment
What is IC?
What is NFPA 704 marking?
Placard with four identifications.
9 O'clock - Health Hazard (blue)
12 O'clock - Flammability (red)
3 O'clock - Reactivity (yellow)
6 O'clock - Special (white)
Three requirements of "safe approach"
Upwind, upgrade, upstream
Ways hazmats can kill you?
1. Toxicity, 2. Radioactivity, 3. Asphyxiation, 4. Explosion, 5. Flammability, 6. Corrosion
What is MSDS?
Material Safety Data Sheet
True or False: Approach hazmats from a safe direction and distance?
What is a "perimeter"?
Outside security line around all control lines. Exclusion Zone, Contamination Reduction Zone, and Support Zone are all within the Perimeter.
What is an "exclusion/hot zone"?
Area of isolation (only responders with a specific task & proper level of protective clothing in this zone).
What is an "contamination reduction zone/warm zone"?
Used to control areas like Safe Refuge and Decontamination (may use a reduced protective clothing level in this zone).
What is a "support/cold zone"?
Safe area for Command Post, Media, medical aid, etc. (No protective clothing or SCBA required).
Mandatory hazmat notifications?
1. Local dispatch (Local 911).
2. CUPA/Local Administering Agency
3. State Warning Center
4. National Response Center
Agency resources can be identified being in what 3 status conditions?
Assigned, Available, Out of Service
What is "Acute" exposure?
One time, limited or short term exposure.
What is "Chronic" exposure?
Continuous, repeated or long term exposure.
Describe "Acute" effects?
Range from no immediate effects to death within minutes. Acute effects may not manifest themselves immediately. Many substances will cause problems that won't show up for hours or even days after exposure.
Describe "Chronic" effects?
Not detectable for years--could cause death, injury, birth defects or illness.
MSDS Terms - IDLH
Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health
MSDS Terms - TLV
Threshold Limit Value
MSDS Terms - STEL
Short Term Exposure Limit
MSDS Terms - PEL
Permissible Exposure Limit (Law)
MSDS Terms - MLD
Minimum Lethal Dose
MSDS Terms - LD/LC 50
Lethal Dose/Lethal Concentration 50%
MSDS Terms - LD lo
Lethal Dose, low
MSDS Terms - PPM/MgM3
Parts Per Million/Milligrams Per Cubic Meter
MSDS Terms - ERPG
Emergency Response Planning Guide
Good source of chemical information (24/7)?
How many sources of information should be used of IDHA?
True or False: Firefighter turnouts are not chemical protective clothing even on SCBA?
TRUE - They are "level D"
Protective Clothing - Level A
Best respiratory and skin protection.
a) Positive pressure SCBA and
b) Fully encapsulated, vapor tight chemical protective suit.
Protective Clothing - Level B
High level or respiratory protection but less for skin.
a) Positive pressure SCBA and
b) Hooded chemical resistive closthing.
Protective Clothing - Level C
Air purifying respirators and modest skin protection.
a) Full or half-mask APR and
b) Hooded chemical resistive clothing.
Protective Clothing - Level D
Ordinary work uniform, (minimal protection)
a) No respiratory protection.
b) Minimal splash and vapor protection.
c) May actually absorb vapors, gases and liquids.
Typical protective clothing level of First Responder?
What is SCBA?
Self-contained Breathing Apparatus
What is APR?
Air Purifying Respirator
What is SAR?
Supplied Air Respirator, Rarely used in emergency response due to practical limitations.
What is "defensive" containment?
Slow & restrict hazmat spread.
What is "offensive" containment?
Stop haszmat release.
Typical "defensive" containment strategies?
Dike, Dam, Divert, Disperse, Dilute, Cover, Foam
Typical "offensive" containment strategies?
Plug and patch, Absorb, Transfer, Containerize, Stop
Two key "Protective Actions"?
2. In-Place Protection/Sheltering in Place
Who pays for hazmat incident?
1. Responsible Party (then),
2. Local Agencies (then),
3. State Agencies (then),
4. Federal Agencies
How many years must chemical exposure records be kept?
30 years (after termination of employment)
Reasons for hazmat documentation?
Cost recovery, exposure records, training records, investigations, future lawsuits.
Hazmat must be tracked from cradle to grave.
Three goals of hazmat response?
True or False: "Non-intervention" is a valid containment strategy?
When no life is in danger, inadequate resources or capabilities, where risks outweigh gains/benefits.
Describe how the media can be an asset.
1. Intelligence gathering tool.
2. Can quickly warn, inform and instruct public of hazards.
True or False: In most cases the media must not be prevented from access for reporting purposes?
What is an IO (media related)?
Four "routes" of exposure?
1. Respiratory (breath),
2. Absorption (skin/eyes)
4. Injection (puncture, cut, abrasion)
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