59 terms

American History Unit 7 & 8

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Marshall Plan
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
Truman Doctrine
1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.
Containment
American policy of resisting further expansion of communism around the world
Berlin Airlift
Airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of West Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
Iron Curtain
A political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization: Alliance of the allied powers against the Soviets
Warsaw Pact
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
Communism
A political and economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state.
Capitalism
An economic system based on private property and free enterprise.
Arms Race
Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their respective armed forces and weapons
Mutually Assured Destruction
(MAD) if either US or the USSR was hit with a nuclear weapons they would respond with the same
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 crisis that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union over a Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba
John F. Kennedy
President during the Cuban Missile Crisis
SALT Treaties
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks; international treaties b/w US and USSR on the limitation of nuclear weapons.
Ronald Reagan
US President that helped end the Cold War with the Soviet Union.
Fall of the Berlin Wall
The removal of the wall that separated East and West Germany in 1989. Symbolized the end of the Cold War.
China
Asian nation that turns to Communism in 1949 after the Mao Zedong comes into power and fights with the North in the Korean War.
Mao Zedong
Communist leader of China who comes into power in 1949.
Domino Theory
The idea that if a nation falls under communist control, nearby nations will also fall under communist control
United Nations
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
Space Race
the competition between the USSR and the USA regarding achievements in the field of space exploration.
Tinker vs. Des Moines
Students were suspended because they were wearing arm-bands because they were protesting the war.
Environmental Protection Agency
Signed by Richard Nixon. It set water and pollution standards. It was to helped protected the environment.
Endangered Species Act
a law requiring the Fish and Wildlife Service to list species of plants and animals that are threatened with extinction
Equal Right Amendments
Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of sex.
Detente
Relaxing tension between USSR
Gerald Ford
Under the 25th amendment, he was appointed the New Vice-President under Nixon. He would later become the only appointed President.
Watergate Crisis
Former CIA members working for Nixon's re-election got caught breaking in the Democratic headquarters to steal strategies.
Executive Privilege
Nixon claimed this turn because he did not want to turn over the tapes. He claimed that infringed over the checks and balance where the Judicial Branch will have more over the Executive Branch.
United States vs. Nixon
the supreme Court ordered Nixon to turn over the tapes, proving no one is above the law.
Impeach
Remove from office
Inflation
Rising in prices and rising in employment.
Stagflation
Rising in prices but high unemployment
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
It formed by Middle Eastern nations and they were are oil producing nations.
embargo
is an official Ban of Trade ( Do not Trade)
Energy Crisis in 1973
OPEC used oil as political weapon by placing an oil embargo on the USA for supporting Israel in a middle east war. Gas prices sky-rocketed in the US
Camp David Accord
It was a meeting between Egypt's Anwar Sadat and Israel's Menachem. It ended a 30 year war between the two nations
Iran Hostage Crisis
The Iran leader, Khomeini, seized 42 members of the American Embassy in Tehran, Iran for 444 days
AmeriCorps
Clinton program that put students to work and offered a scholarship so they could continue their education
Oklahoma City Bombing
Domestic terrorist bombing of a federal building in 1995.
NAFTA
agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America. The agreement came into force on January 1, 1994.
Contract with America
ten items Republicans promised to enact if they won control of Congress. They included congressional term limits, a balanced budget amendment, tax cuts, tougher crime laws, and welfare reform
Newt Gingrich
Republican Congressman who created the contract for america; becomes speaker of the House
Welfare Reform Act
Limited people to no more than 2 consecutive years on welfare.
Globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
whitewater scandal
improperly using money from a land deal with the a development Company to fund his 1984 gubernatorial reelection campaign
Monica Lewinsky Scandal
Clinton allegedly had lied under oath about having an improper relationship with a young White House intern.
Impeachment
A formal document charging a public official with misconduct in office (to charge with a crime)
Don't ask, Don't tell
official United States policy on military service which prohibited military personnel from discriminating against closeted homosexual or bisexual service members or applicants, while barring openly gay, lesbian, or bisexual persons from military service.
Space Shuttle Challenger disaster
All 7 astronauts are killed, shaking America's faith in NASA and shuttle program. Reagan comforts a shocked nation and becomes known as the Comforter-In-Chief.
Reaganomics/ Supply Side Economics
Belief that lowering taxes, especially on big business, will generate more tax revenue and eventually "trickle-down" to the middle class.
Iran-Contra Affair
Senior Reagan administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran, the subject of an arms embargo
Reagan contribution to ending the cold war
Massive increase of military spending ($1.5 trillion dollars); USSR economy struggled to keep up!
SDI
Strategic Defense Initiative aka Star Wars. Reagan's program to build a nuclear shield over US
Oliver North
American General who was involved with the Iran-Contra Scandal
Bill Clinton
1992 Presidental candidate that had to deal with issues regarding his draft status and extramarital affairs
Persian Gulf War
War initiated by President Bush in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait
Contras
guerrillas who fought the (Communist)Sandinistas in Nicaragua
Tariffs
Help support American jobs and economy

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